A Caltech Library Service

Upper Limits on the Isotropic Gravitational-Wave Background from Advanced LIGO's and Advanced Virgo's Third Observing Run

Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Abraham, S. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, A. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Agarwal, D. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Aiello, L. and Ain, A. and Akutsu, T. and Aleman, K. M. and Allen, G. and Allocca, A. and Altin, P. A. and Amato, A. and Anand, S. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Ando, M. and Angelova, S. V. and Ansoldi, S. and Antelis, J. M. and Antier, S. and Appert, S. and Arai, Koya and Arai, Koji and Arai, Y. and Araki, S. and Araya, A. and Araya, M. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arène, M. and Aritomi, N. and Arnaud, N. and Aronson, S. M. and Asada, H. and Asali, Y. and Ashton, G. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Aubin, F. and Aufmuth, P. and AultONeal, K. and Austin, C. and Babak, S. and Badaracco, F. and Bader, M. K. M. and Bae, S. and Bae, Y. and Baer, A. M. and Bagnasco, S. and Bai, Y. and Baiotti, L. and Baird, J. and Bajpai, R. and Ball, M. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Bals, M. and Balsamo, A. and Baltus, G. and Banagiri, S. and Bankar, D. and Bankar, R. S. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barbieri, C. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, D. and Barneo, P. and Barnum, S. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barta, D. and Bartlett, J. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Basti, A. and Bawaj, M. and Bayley, J. C. and Baylor, A. C. and Bazzan, M. and Bécsy, B. and Bedakihale, V. M. and Bejger, M. and Belahcene, I. and Benedetto, V. and Beniwal, D. and Benjamin, M. G. and Bennett, T. F. and Bentley, J. D. and BenYaala, M. and Bergamin, F. and Berger, B. K. and Bernuzzi, S. and Bersanetti, D. and Bertolini, A. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhandare, R. and Bhandari, A. V. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Bhaumik, S. and Bidler, J. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Birney, R. and Birnholtz, O. and Biscans, S. and Bischi, M. and Biscoveanu, S. and Bisht, A. and Biswas, B. and Bitossi, M. and Bizouard, M. -A. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackman, J. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, D. G. and Blair, R. M. and Bobba, F. and Bode, N. and Boer, M. and Bogaert, G. and Boldrini, M. and Bondu, F. and Bonilla, E. and Bonnand, R. and Booker, P. and Boom, B. A. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, N. and Bose, S. and Bossilkov, V. and Boudart, V. and Bouffanais, Y. and Bozzi, A. and Bradaschia, C. and Brady, P. R. and Bramley, A. and Branch, A. and Branchesi, M. and Brau, J. E. and Breschi, M. and Briant, T. and Briggs, J. H. and Brillet, A. and Brinkmann, M. and Brockill, P. and Brooks, A. F. and Brooks, J. and Brown, D. D. and Brunett, S. and Bruno, G. and Bruntz, R. and Bryant, J. and Buikema, A. and Bulik, T. and Bulten, H. J. and Buonanno, A. and Buscicchio, R. and Buskulic, D. and Byer, R. 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G. and Fujii, Y. and Fujikawa, Y. and Fukunaga, M. and Fukushima, M. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Gabbard, H. A. and Gadre, B. U. and Gaebel, S. M. and Gair, J. R. and Gais, J. and Galaudage, S. and Gamba, R. and Ganapathy, D. and Ganguly, A. and Gao, D. and Gaonkar, S. G. and Garaventa, B. and García-Núñez, C. and García-Quirós, C. and Garufi, F. and Gateley, B. and Gaudio, S. and Gayathri, V. and Ge, G. and Gemme, G. and Gennai, A. and George, J. and Gergely, L. and Gewecke, P. and Ghonge, S. and Ghosh, Abhirup. and Ghosh, Archisman and Ghosh, Shaon and Ghosh, Shrobana and Ghosh, Sourath and Giacomazzo, B. and Giacoppo, L. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Gibson, D. R. and Gier, C. and Giesler, M. and Giri, P. and Gissi, F. and Glanzer, J. and Gleckl, A. 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(2021) Upper Limits on the Isotropic Gravitational-Wave Background from Advanced LIGO's and Advanced Virgo's Third Observing Run. . (Unpublished)

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We report results of a search for an isotropic gravitational-wave background (GWB) using data from Advanced LIGO's and Advanced Virgo's third observing run (O3) combined with upper limits from the earlier O1 and O2 runs. Unlike in previous observing runs in the advanced detector era, we include Virgo in the search for the GWB. The results of the search are consistent with uncorrelated noise, and therefore we place upper limits on the strength of the GWB. We find that the dimensionless energy density Ω_(GW) ≤ 5.8 x 10⁻⁹ at the 95% credible level for a at (frequency-independent) GWB, using a prior which is uniform in the log of the strength of the GWB, with 99% of the sensitivity coming from the band 20-76.6 Hz; Ω_(GW)(f) ≤ 3.4 x 10⁻⁹ at 25 Hz for a power-law GWB with a spectral index of 2/3 (consistent with expectations for compact binary coalescences), in the band 20-90.6 Hz; and Ω_(GW)(f) ≤ 3.9 x 10⁻¹⁰ at 25 Hz for a spectral index of 3, in the band 20-291.6 Hz. These upper limits improve over our previous results by a factor of 6.0 for a flat GWB, 8.8 for a spectral index of 2/3, and 13.1 for a spectral index of 3. We also search for a GWB arising from scalar and vector modes, which are predicted by alternative theories of gravity; we do not find evidence of these, and place upper limits on the strength of GWBs with these polarizations. We demonstrate that there is no evidence of correlated noise of magnetic origin by performing a Bayesian analysis that allows for the presence of both a GWB and an effective magnetic background arising from geophysical Schumann resonances. We compare our upper limits to a fiducial model for the GWB from the merger of compact binaries, updating the model to use the most recent data-driven population inference from the systems detected during O3a. Finally, we combine our results with observations of individual mergers and show that, at design sensitivity, this joint approach may yield stronger constraints on the merger rate of binary black holes at z ≳ 2 than can be achieved with individually resolved mergers alone.

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Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Anand, S.0000-0003-3768-7515
Arai, Koji0000-0001-8916-8915
Araya, M. C.0000-0002-6018-6447
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Gupta, Anchal0000-0002-1762-9644
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Kanner, J. B.0000-0001-8115-0577
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MacMillan, I. A. O.0000-0002-6927-1031
Markowitz, A.0000-0003-0223-2342
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
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Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
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Additional Information:The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació, Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d'Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d'Innovació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain, the National Science Centre of Poland and the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP), the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS), Actions de Recherche Concertées (ARC) and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium, the Paris Île-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH), the National Research Foundation of Korea, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovations, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan, the United States Department of Energy, and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN and CNRS for provision of computational resources. This work was supported by MEXT, JSPS Leadingedge Research Infrastructure Program, JSPS Grant-in- Aid for Specially Promoted Research 26000005, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 2905: JP17H06358, JP17H06361 and JP17H06364, JSPS Core-to-Core Program A. Advanced Research Networks, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) 17H06133, the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, National Research Foundation (NRF) and Computing Infrastructure Project of KISTI-GSDC in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS), AS Grid Center (ASGC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in Taiwan under grants including AS-CDA-105-M06, Advanced Technology Center (ATC) of NAOJ, and Mechanical Engineering Center of KEK. All plots have been prepared using Matplotlib [122]. We would like to thank all of the essential workers who put their health at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic, without whom we would not have been able to complete this work. This document has been assigned the number LIGO DCC-P2000314.
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Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
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Ministry of Human Resource Development (India)UNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació, Recerca i TurismeUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Innovació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat ValencianaUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Foundation for Polish ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European CommissionUNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development Funds (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)UNSPECIFIED
Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)UNSPECIFIED
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Paris Île-de-France RegionUNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA) UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
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Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR)UNSPECIFIED
Research Grants Council of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)26000005
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06358
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06361
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06364
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H06133
Institute for Cosmic Ray ResearchUNSPECIFIED
University of TokyoUNSPECIFIED
Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI)UNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)AS-CDA-105-M06
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
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ID Code:108593
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:01 Apr 2021 18:27
Last Modified:01 Apr 2021 21:19

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