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Upper limits on the isotropic gravitational-wave background from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo’s third observing run

Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Abraham, S. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, A. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Agarwal, D. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Aiello, L. and Ain, A. and Akutsu, T. and Aleman, K. M. and Allen, G. and Allocca, A. and Altin, P. A. and Amato, A. and Anand, S. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Ando, M. and Angelova, S. V. and Ansoldi, S. and Antelis, J. M. and Antier, S. and Appert, S. and Arai, Koya and Arai, Koji and Arai, Y. and Araki, S. and Araya, A. and Araya, M. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arène, M. and Aritomi, N. and Arnaud, N. and Aronson, S. M. and Asada, H. and Asali, Y. and Ashton, G. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Aubin, F. and Aufmuth, P. and AultONeal, K. and Austin, C. and Babak, S. and Badaracco, F. and Bader, M. K. M. and Bae, S. and Bae, Y. and Baer, A. M. and Bagnasco, S. and Bai, Y. and Baiotti, L. and Baird, J. and Bajpai, R. and Ball, M. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Bals, M. and Balsamo, A. and Baltus, G. and Banagiri, S. and Bankar, D. and Bankar, R. S. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barbieri, C. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, D. and Barneo, P. and Barnum, S. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barta, D. and Bartlett, J. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Basti, A. and Bawaj, M. and Bayley, J. C. and Baylor, A. C. and Bazzan, M. and Bécsy, B. and Bedakihale, V. M. and Bejger, M. and Belahcene, I. and Benedetto, V. and Beniwal, D. and Benjamin, M. G. and Bennett, T. F. and Bentley, J. D. and BenYaala, M. and Bergamin, F. and Berger, B. K. and Bernuzzi, S. and Bersanetti, D. and Bertolini, A. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhandare, R. and Bhandari, A. V. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Bhaumik, S. and Bidler, J. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Birney, R. and Birnholtz, O. and Biscans, S. and Bischi, M. and Biscoveanu, S. and Bisht, A. and Biswas, B. and Bitossi, M. and Bizouard, M. -A. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackman, J. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, D. G. and Blair, R. M. and Bobba, F. and Bode, N. and Boer, M. and Bogaert, G. and Boldrini, M. and Bondu, F. and Bonilla, E. and Bonnand, R. and Booker, P. and Boom, B. A. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, N. and Bose, S. and Bossilkov, V. and Boudart, V. and Bouffanais, Y. and Bozzi, A. and Bradaschia, C. and Brady, P. R. and Bramley, A. and Branch, A. and Branchesi, M. and Brau, J. E. and Breschi, M. and Briant, T. and Briggs, J. H. and Brillet, A. and Brinkmann, M. and Brockill, P. and Brooks, A. F. and Brooks, J. and Brown, D. D. and Brunett, S. and Bruno, G. and Bruntz, R. and Bryant, J. and Buikema, A. and Bulik, T. and Bulten, H. J. and Buonanno, A. and Buscicchio, R. and Buskulic, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Caesar, M. and Cagnoli, G. and Cahillane, C. and Cain, H. W., III and Calderón Bustillo, J. and Callaghan, J. D. and Callister, T. A. and Calloni, E. and Camp, J. B. and Canepa, M. and Cannavacciuolo, M. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, H. and Cao, J. and Cao, Z. and Capocasa, E. and Capote, E. and Carapella, G. and Carbognani, F. and Carlin, J. B. and Carney, M. F. and Carpinelli, M. and Carullo, G. and Carver, T. L. and Casanueva Diaz, J. and Casentini, C. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglià, M. and Cavalier, F. and Cavalieri, R. and Cella, G. and Cerdá-Durán, P. and Cesarini, E. and Chaibi, W. and Chakravarti, K. and Champion, B. and Chan, C.-H. and Chan, C. and Chan, C. L. and Chan, M. and Chandra, K. and Chanial, P. and Chao, S. and Charlton, P. and Chase, E. A. and Chassande-Mottin, E. and Chatterjee, D. and Chaturvedi, M. and Chen, A. and Chen, C. and Chen, H. Y. and Chen, J. and Chen, K. and Chen, X. and Chen, Y.-B. and Chen, Y.-R. and Chen, Z. and Cheng, H. and Cheong, C. K. and Cheung, H. Y. and Chia, H. Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chiang, C-Y. and Chierici, R. and Chincarini, A. and Chiofalo, M. L. and Chiummo, A. and Cho, G. and Cho, H. S. and Choate, S. and Choudhary, R. K. and Choudhary, S. and Christensen, N. and Chu, H. and Chu, Q. and Chu, Y-K. and Chua, S. and Chung, K. W. and Ciani, G. and Ciecielag, P. and Cieślar, M. and Cifaldi, M. and Ciobanu, A. A. and Ciolfi, R. and Cipriano, F. and Cirone, A. and Clara, F. and Clark, E. N. and Clark, J. A. and Clarke, L. and Clearwater, P. and Clesse, S. and Cleva, F. and Coccia, E. and Cohadon, P.-F. and Cohen, D. E. and Cohen, L. and Colleoni, M. and Collette, C. G. and Colpi, M. and Compton, C. M. and Constancio, M., Jr. and Conti, L. and Cooper, S. J. and Corban, P. and Corbitt, T. R. and Cordero-Carrión, I. and Corezzi, S. and Corley, K. R. and Cornish, N. and Corre, D. and Corsi, A. and Cortese, S. and Costa, C. A. and Cotesta, R. and Coughlin, M. W. and Coughlin, S. B. and Coulon, J. -P. and Countryman, S. T. and Cousins, B. and Couvares, P. and Covas, P. B. and Coward, D. M. and Cowart, M. J. and Coyne, D. C. and Coyne, R. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Criswell, A. W. and Croquette, M. and Crowder, S. G. and Cudell, J. R. and Cullen, T. J. and Cumming, A. and Cummings, R. and Cuoco, E. and Curyło, M. and Dal Canton, T. and Dálya, G. and Dana, A. and DaneshgaranBajastani, L. M. and D'Angelo, B. and Danilishin, S. L. and D'Antonio, S. and Danzmann, K. and Darsow-Fromm, C. and Dasgupta, A. and Datrier, L. E. H. and Dattilo, V. and Dave, I. and Davier, M. and Davies, G. S. and Davis, D. and Daw, E. J. and Dean, R. and DeBra, D. and Deenadayalan, M. and Degallaix, J. and De Laurentis, M. and Deléglise, S. and Del Favero, V. and De Lillo, F. and De Lillo, N. and Del Pozzo, W. and DeMarchi, L. M. and De Matteis, F. and D'Emilio, V. and Demos, N. and Dent, T. and Depasse, A. and De Pietri, R. and De Rosa, R. and De Rossi, C. and DeSalvo, R. and De Simone, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Díaz, M. C. and Diaz-Ortiz, M., Jr. and Didio, N. A. and Dietrich, T. and Di Fiore, L. and Di Fronzo, C. and Di Giorgio, C. and Di Giovanni, F. and Di Girolamo, T. and Di Lieto, A. and Ding, B. and Di Pace, S. and Di Palma, I. and Di Renzo, F. and Divakarla, A. K. and Dmitriev, A. and Doctor, Z. and D'Onofrio, L. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doravari, S. and Dorrington, I. and Drago, M. and Driggers, J. C. and Drori, Y. and Du, Z. and Ducoin, J.-G. and Dupej, P. and Durante, O. and D'Urso, D. and Duverne, P.-A. and Dvorkin, I. and Dwyer, S. E. and Easter, P. J. and Ebersold, M. and Eddolls, G. and Edelman, B. and Edo, T. B. and Edy, O. and Effler, A. and Eguchi, S. and Eichholz, J. and Eikenberry, S. S. and Eisenmann, M. and Eisenstein, R. A. and Ejlli, A. and Enomoto, Y. and Errico, L. and Essick, R. C. and Estellés, H. and Estevez, D. and Etienne, Z. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. M. and Ewing, B. E. and Fafone, V. and Fair, H. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, X. and Farah, A. M. and Farinon, S. and Farr, B. and Farr, W. M. and Farrow, N. W. and Fauchon-Jones, E. J. and Favata, M. and Fays, M. and Fazio, M. and Feicht, J. and Fejer, M. M. and Feng, F. and Fenyvesi, E. and Ferguson, D. L. and Fernandez-Galiana, A. and Ferrante, I. and Ferreira, T. A. and Fidecaro, F. and Figura, P. and Fiori, I. and Fishbach, M. and Fisher, R. P. and Fishner, J. M. and Fittipaldi, R. and Fiumara, V. and Flaminio, R. and Floden, E. and Flynn, E. and Fong, H. and Font, J. A. and Fornal, B. and Forsyth, P. W. F. and Franke, A. and Frasca, S. and Frasconi, F. and Frederick, C. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fronzé, G. G. and Fujii, Y. and Fujikawa, Y. and Fukunaga, M. and Fukushima, M. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Gabbard, H. A. and Gadre, B. U. and Gaebel, S. M. and Gair, J. R. and Gais, J. and Galaudage, S. and Gamba, R. and Ganapathy, D. and Ganguly, A. and Gao, D. and Gaonkar, S. G. and Garaventa, B. and García-Núñez, C. and García-Quirós, C. and Garufi, F. and Gateley, B. and Gaudio, S. and Gayathri, V. and Ge, G. and Gemme, G. and Gennai, A. and George, J. and Gergely, L. and Gewecke, P. and Ghonge, S. and Ghosh, Abhirup. and Ghosh, Archisman and Ghosh, Shaon and Ghosh, Shrobana and Ghosh, Sourath and Giacomazzo, B. and Giacoppo, L. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Gibson, D. R. and Gier, C. and Giesler, M. and Giri, P. and Gissi, F. and Glanzer, J. and Gleckl, A. E. and Godwin, P. and Goetz, E. and Goetz, R. and Gohlke, N. and Goncharov, B. and González, G. and Gopakumar, A. and Gosselin, M. and Gouaty, R. and Grace, B. and Grado, A. and Granata, M. and Granata, V. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Grassia, P. and Gray, C. and Gray, R. and Greco, G. and Green, A. C. and Green, R. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Gretarsson, E. M. and Griffith, D. and Griffiths, W. and Griggs, H. L. and Grignani, G. and Grimaldi, A. and Grimes, E. and Grimm, S. J. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Gruning, P. and Guerrero, J. G. and Guidi, G. M. and Guimaraes, A. R. and Guixé, G. and Gulati, H. K. and Guo, H.-K. and Guo, Y. and Gupta, Anchal and Gupta, Anuradha and Gupta, P. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Guzman, F. and Ha, S. and Haegel, L. and Hagiwara, A. and Haino, S. and Halim, O. and Hall, E. D. and Hamilton, E. Z. and Hammond, G. and Han, W.-B. and Haney, M. and Hanks, J. and Hanna, C. and Hannam, M. D. and Hannuksela, O. A. and Hansen, H. and Hansen, T. J. and Hanson, J. and Harder, T. and Hardwick, T. and Haris, K. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Hartwig, D. and Hasegawa, K. and Haskell, B. and Hasskew, R. K. and Haster, C.-J. and Hattori, K. and Haughian, K. and Hayakawa, H. and Hayama, K. and Hayes, F. J. and Healy, J. and Heidmann, A. and Heintze, M. C. and Heinze, J. and Heinzel, J. and Heitmann, H. and Hellman, F. and Hello, P. and Helmling-Cornell, A. F. and Hemming, G. and Hendry, M. and Heng, I. S. and Hennes, E. and Hennig, J. and Hennig, M. H. and Hernandez Vivanco, F. and Heurs, M. and Hild, S. and Hill, P. and Himemoto, Y. and Hines, A. S. and Hiranuma, Y. and Hirata, N. and Hirose, E. and Hochheim, S. and Hofman, D. and Hohmann, J. N. and Holgado, A. M. and Holland, N. A. and Hollows, I. J. and Holmes, Z. J. and Holt, K. and Holz, D. E. and Hong, Z. and Hopkins, P. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. J. and Hoy, C. G. and Hoyland, D. and Hreibi, A. and Hsieh, B-H. and Hsu, Y. and Huang, G-Z. and Huang, H-Y. and Huang, P. and Huang, Y-C. and Huang, Y.-J. and Huang, Y. -W. and Hübner, M. T. and Huddart, A. D. and Huerta, E. A. and Hughey, B. and Hui, D. C. Y. and Hui, V. and Husa, S. and Huttner, S. H. and Huxford, R. and Huynh-Dinh, T. and Ide, S. and Idzkowski, B. and Iess, A. and Ikenoue, B. and Imam, S. and Inayoshi, K. and Inchauspe, H. and Ingram, C. and Inoue, Y. and Intini, G. and Ioka, K. and Isi, M. and Isleif, K. and Ito, K. and Itoh, Y. and Iyer, B. R. and Izumi, K. and JaberianHamedan, V. and Jacqmin, T. and Jadhav, S. J. and Jadhav, S. P. and James, A. L. and Jan, A. Z. and Jani, K. and Janssens, K. and Janthalur, N. N. and Jaranowski, P. and Jariwala, D. and Jaume, R. and Jenkins, A. C. and Jeon, C. and Jeunon, M. and Jia, W. and Jiang, J. and Jin, H. -B. and Johns, G. R. and Jones, A. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, J. D. and Jones, P. and Jones, R. and Jonker, R. J. G. and Ju, L. and Jung, K. and Jung, P. and Junker, J. and Kaihotsu, K. and Kajita, T. and Kakizaki, M. and Kalaghatgi, C. V. and Kalogera, V. and Kamai, B. and Kamiizumi, M. and Kanda, N. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kang, G. and Kanner, J. B. and Kao, Y. and Kapadia, S. J. and Kapasi, D. P. and Karathanasis, C. and Karki, S. and Kashyap, R. and Kasprzack, M. and Kastaun, W. and Katsanevas, S. and Katsavounidis, E. and Katzman, W. and Kaur, T. and Kawabe, K. and Kawaguchi, K. and Kawai, N. and Kawasaki, T. and Kéfélian, F. and Keitel, D. and Key, J. S. and Khadka, S. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, I. and Khan, S. and Khazanov, E. A. and Khetan, N. and Khursheed, M. and Kijbunchoo, N. and Kim, C. and Kim, J. C. and Kim, J. and Kim, K. and Kim, W. S. and Kim, Y.-M. and Kimball, C. and Kimura, N. and King, P. J. and Kinley-Hanlon, M. and Kirchhoff, R. and Kissel, J. S. and Kita, N. and Kitazawa, H. and Kleybolte, L. and Klimenko, S. and Knee, A. M. and Knowles, T. D. and Knyazev, E. and Koch, P. and Koekoek, G. and Kojima, Y. and Kokeyama, K. and Koley, S. and Kolitsidou, P. and Kolstein, M. and Komori, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kong, A. K. H. and Kontos, A. and Koper, N. and Korobko, M. and Kotake, K. and Kovalam, M. and Kozak, D. B. and Kozakai, C. and Kozu, R. and Kringel, V. and Krishnendu, N. V. and Królak, A. and Kuehn, G. and Kuei, F. and Kumar, A. and Kumar, P. and Kumar, Rahul and Kumar, Rakesh and Kume, J. and Kuns, K. and Kuo, C. and Kuo, H-S. and Kuromiya, Y. and Kuroyanagi, S. and Kusayanagi, K. and Kwak, K. and Kwang, S. and Laghi, D. and Lalande, E. and Lam, T. L. and Lamberts, A. and Landry, M. and Lane, B. B. and Lang, R. N. and Lange, J. and Lantz, B. and La Rosa, I. and Lartaux-Vollard, A. and Lasky, P. D. and Laxen, M. and Lazzarini, A. and Lazzaro, C. and Leaci, P. and Leavey, S. and Lecoeuche, Y. K. and Lee, H. K. and Lee, H. M. and Lee, H. 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(2021) Upper limits on the isotropic gravitational-wave background from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo’s third observing run. Physical Review D, 104 (2). Art. No. 022004. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.104.022004. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210331-090446541

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Abstract

We report results of a search for an isotropic gravitational-wave background (GWB) using data from Advanced LIGO’s and Advanced Virgo’s third observing run (O3) combined with upper limits from the earlier O1 and O2 runs. Unlike in previous observing runs in the advanced detector era, we include Virgo in the search for the GWB. The results of the search are consistent with uncorrelated noise, and therefore we place upper limits on the strength of the GWB. We find that the dimensionless energy density Ω_(GW) ≤ 5.8 × 10⁻⁹ at the 95% credible level for a flat (frequency-independent) GWB, using a prior which is uniform in the log of the strength of the GWB, with 99% of the sensitivity coming from the band 20–76.6 Hz; Ω_(GW)(f) ≤ 3.4 × 10⁻⁹ at 25 Hz for a power-law GWB with a spectral index of 2/3 (consistent with expectations for compact binary coalescences), in the band 20–90.6 Hz; and Ω_(GW)(f) ≤ 3.9 × 10⁻¹⁰ at 25 Hz for a spectral index of 3, in the band 20–291.6 Hz. These upper limits improve over our previous results by a factor of 6.0 for a flat GWB, 8.8 for a spectral index of 2/3, and 13.1 for a spectral index of 3. We also search for a GWB arising from scalar and vector modes, which are predicted by alternative theories of gravity; we do not find evidence of these, and place upper limits on the strength of GWBs with these polarizations. We demonstrate that there is no evidence of correlated noise of magnetic origin by performing a Bayesian analysis that allows for the presence of both a GWB and an effective magnetic background arising from geophysical Schumann resonances. We compare our upper limits to a fiducial model for the GWB from the merger of compact binaries, updating the model to use the most recent data-driven population inference from the systems detected during O3a. Finally, we combine our results with observations of individual mergers and show that, at design sensitivity, this joint approach may yield stronger constraints on the merger rate of binary black holes at z ≳ 2 than can be achieved with individually resolved mergers alone.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.104.022004DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2101.12130arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Anand, S.0000-0003-3768-7515
Arai, Koji0000-0001-8916-8915
Araya, M. C.0000-0002-6018-6447
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, S.0000-0002-9635-7527
Blackburn, J. K.0000-0002-3838-2986
Blackman, J.0000-0002-7113-0289
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Calderón Bustillo, J.0000-0002-4171-5884
Chen, Y.-B.0000-0002-9730-9463
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Davis, D.0000-0001-5620-6751
Drori, Y.0000-0001-6590-1828
Giesler, M.0000-0003-2300-893X
Gupta, Anchal0000-0002-1762-9644
Kamai, B.0000-0001-6521-9351
Kanner, J. B.0000-0001-8115-0577
Kozak, D. B.0000-0003-3118-8950
Li, A. K. Y.0000-0001-6728-6523
Lo, R. K. L.0000-0003-1561-6716
MacMillan, I. A. O.0000-0002-6927-1031
Markowitz, A.0000-0003-0223-2342
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
Meshkov, S.0000-0002-7973-5338
Reitze, D. H.0000-0002-5756-1111
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Scheel, M.0000-0001-6656-9134
Sun, L.0000-0001-7959-892X
Talbot, C.0000-0003-2053-5582
Tso, R.0000-0003-4464-0117
Vajente, G.0000-0002-7656-6882
Varma, V.0000-0002-9994-1761
Venugopalan, G.0000-0003-4414-9918
Weinstein, A. J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Xiao, L.0000-0003-2703-449X
Yamamoto, H.0000-0001-6919-9570
Yu, Hang0000-0002-6011-6190
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Alternate Title:Upper Limits on the Isotropic Gravitational-Wave Background from Advanced LIGO's and Advanced Virgo's Third Observing Run
Additional Information:© 2021 American Physical Society. Received 24 January 2021; accepted 9 June 2021; published 23 July 2021. This material is based upon work supported by NSF’s LIGO Laboratory which is a major facility fully funded by the National Science Foundation. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació, Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d’Innovació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain, the National Science Centre of Poland and the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP), the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS), Actions de Recherche Concertées (ARC) and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium, the Paris Île-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH), the National Research Foundation of Korea, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovations, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan, the United States Department of Energy, and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN and CNRS for provision of computational resources. This work was supported by MEXT, JSPS Leading-edge Research Infrastructure Program, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research 26000005 (Kajita 2014-2018), JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 2905: JP17H06358, JP17H06361 and JP17H06364, JSPS Core-to-Core Program A. Advanced Research Networks, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) 17H06133 and 20H05639, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Transformative Research Areas (A) 20A203: JP20H05854, the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, National Research Foundation (NRF) and Computing Infrastructure Project of KISTI-GSDC in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS), AS Grid Center (ASGC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in Taiwan under grants including AS-CDA-105-M06, Advanced Technology Center (ATC) of NAOJ, Mechanical Engineering Center of KEK. All plots have been prepared using Matplotlib [131]. We would like to thank all of the essential workers who put their health at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic, without whom we would not have been able to complete this work. This document has been assigned the number LIGO-DCC-P2000314.
Group:LIGO
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-SocietyUNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Human Resource Development (India)UNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació, Recerca i TurismeUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Innovació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat ValencianaUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Foundation for Polish ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European CommissionUNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development Funds (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Royal SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)UNSPECIFIED
Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Actions de Recherche Concertées (ARC)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)UNSPECIFIED
Paris Île-de-France RegionUNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR)UNSPECIFIED
Research Grants Council of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)26000005
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06358
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06361
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06364
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H06133
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)20H05639
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)20A203
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20H05854
Institute for Cosmic Ray ResearchUNSPECIFIED
University of TokyoUNSPECIFIED
Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI)UNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)AS-CDA-105-M06
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)UNSPECIFIED
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP2000314
Issue or Number:2
DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.104.022004
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210331-090446541
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210331-090446541
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108593
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:01 Apr 2021 18:27
Last Modified:05 Aug 2021 21:12

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