CaltechAUTHORS
  A Caltech Library Service

Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMA

Goddi, Ciriaco and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Messias, Hugo and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Broderick, Avery E. and Dexter, Jason and Marrone, Daniel P. and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Nagai, Hiroshi and Algaba, Juan Carlos and Asada, Keiichi and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Gómez, José L. and Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette and Janssen, Michael and Kadler, Matthias and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Lico, Rocco and Matthews, Lynn D. and Nathanail, Antonios and Ricarte, Angelo and Ros, Eduardo and Younsi, Ziri and Akiyama, Kazunori and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Anantua, Richard and Azulay, Rebecca and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Ball, David and Baloković, Mislav and Barrett, John and Benson, Bradford A. and Bintley, Dan and Blackburn, Lindy and Blundell, Raymond and Boland, Wilfred and Bouman, Katherine L. and Boyce, Hope and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chael, Andrew and Chan, Chi-kwan and Chatterjee, Shami and Chatterjee, Koushik and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Chesler, Paul M. and Cho, Ilje and Christian, Pierre and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crawford, Thomas M. and Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro and Cui, Yuzhu and Davelaar, Jordy and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Eatough, Ralph P. and Falcke, Heino and Farah, Joseph and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Ford, H. Alyson and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Freeman, William T. and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Fuentes, Antonio and Galison, Peter and Gammie, Charles F. and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Georgiev, Boris and Gold, Roman and Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I. and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hada, Kazuhiro and Haggard, Daryl and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Inoue, Makoto and Issaoun, Sara and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra and Johnson, Michael D. and Jorstad, Svetlana and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Dong-Jin and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Jongsoo and Kim, Junhan and Kino, Motoki and Koay, Jun Yi and Kofuji, Yutaro and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lauer, Tod R. and Lee, Sang-Sung and Levis, Aviad and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Lindahl, Greg and Liu, Jun and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Loinard, Laurent and Lonsdale, Colin and Lu, Ru-Sen and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mao, Jirong and Marchili, Nicola and Markoff, Sera and Marscher, Alan P. and Matsushita, Satoki and Medeiros, Lia and Menten, Karl M. and Mizuno, Izumi and Mizuno, Yosuke and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Müller, Cornelia and Musoke, Gibwa and Mejías, Alejandro Mus and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Neilsen, Joey and Neri, Roberto and Ni, Chunchong and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Nowak, Michael A. and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Ortiz-León, Gisela N. and Oyama, Tomoaki and Özel, Feryal and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Park, Jongho and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Pesce, Dominic W. and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Pötzl, Felix M. and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Psaltis, Dimitrios and Pu, Hung-Yi and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Rose, Mel and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruszczyk, Chet and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sasada, Mahito and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Sun, He and Tazaki, Fumie and Tetarenko, Alexandra J. and Tiede, Paul and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Toma, Kenji and Torne, Pablo and Trent, Tyler and Traianou, Efthalia and Trippe, Sascha and Bemmel, Ilse van and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Wagner, Jan and Ward-Thompson, Derek and Wardle, John and Weintroub, Jonathan and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wielgus, Maciek and Wong, George N. and Wu, Qingwen and Yoon, Doosoo and Young, André and Young, Ken and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zensus, J. Anton and Zhao, Guang-Yao and Zhao, Shan-Shan and Bruni, Gabriele and Gopakumar, A. and Hernández-Gómez, Antonio and Herrero-Illana, Ruben and Ingram, Adam and Komossa, S. and Kovalev, Y. Y. and Muders, Dirk and Perucho, Manel and Rösch, Florian and Valtonen, Mauri (2021) Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMA. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 910 (1). Art. No. L14. ISSN 2041-8205. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abee6a. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210405-101639564

[img]
Preview
PDF - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution.

6Mb

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item: https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210405-101639564

Abstract

We present the results from a full polarization study carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) during the first Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) campaign, which was conducted in 2017 April in the λ3 mm and λ1.3 mm bands, in concert with the Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) and the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), respectively. We determine the polarization and Faraday properties of all VLBI targets, including Sgr A*, M87, and a dozen radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in the two bands at several epochs in a time window of 10 days. We detect high linear polarization fractions (2%–15%) and large rotation measures (RM > 10^(3.3)–10^(5.5) rad m⁻²), confirming the trends of previous AGN studies at millimeter wavelengths. We find that blazars are more strongly polarized than other AGNs in the sample, while exhibiting (on average) order-of-magnitude lower RM values, consistent with the AGN viewing angle unification scheme. For Sgr A* we report a mean RM of (−4.2 ± 0.3) × 10⁵ rad m⁻² at 1.3 mm, consistent with measurements over the past decade and, for the first time, an RM of (–2.1 ± 0.1) × 10⁵ rad m⁻² at 3 mm, suggesting that about half of the Faraday rotation at 1.3 mm may occur between the 3 mm photosphere and the 1.3 mm source. We also report the first unambiguous measurement of RM toward the M87 nucleus at millimeter wavelengths, which undergoes significant changes in magnitude and sign reversals on a one year timescale, spanning the range from −1.2 to 0.3 × 10⁵ rad m⁻² at 3 mm and −4.1 to 1.5 × 10⁵ rad m⁻² at 1.3 mm. Given this time variability, we argue that, unlike the case of Sgr A*, the RM in M87 does not provide an accurate estimate of the mass accretion rate onto the black hole. We put forward a two-component model, comprised of a variable compact region and a static extended region, that can simultaneously explain the polarimetric properties observed by both the EHT (on horizon scales) and ALMA (which observes the combined emission from both components). These measurements provide critical constraints for the calibration, analysis, and interpretation of simultaneously obtained VLBI data with the EHT and GMVA.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abee6aDOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Goddi, Ciriaco0000-0002-2542-7743
Martí-Vidal, Iván0000-0003-3708-9611
Messias, Hugo0000-0002-2985-7994
Bower, Geoffrey C.0000-0003-4056-9982
Broderick, Avery E.0000-0002-3351-760X
Dexter, Jason0000-0003-3903-0373
Marrone, Daniel P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Moscibrodzka, Monika0000-0002-4661-6332
Nagai, Hiroshi0000-0003-0292-3645
Algaba, Juan Carlos0000-0001-6993-1696
Crew, Geoffrey B.0000-0002-2079-3189
Gómez, José L.0000-0003-4190-7613
Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette0000-0002-3443-2472
Janssen, Michael0000-0001-8685-6544
Kadler, Matthias0000-0001-5606-6154
Krichbaum, Thomas P.0000-0002-4892-9586
Lico, Rocco0000-0001-7361-2460
Matthews, Lynn D.0000-0002-3728-8082
Ricarte, Angelo0000-0001-5287-0452
Ros, Eduardo0000-0001-9503-4892
Younsi, Ziri0000-0001-9283-1191
Akiyama, Kazunori0000-0002-9475-4254
Alberdi, Antxon0000-0002-9371-1033
Anantua, Richard0000-0003-3457-7660
Azulay, Rebecca0000-0002-2200-5393
Baczko, Anne-Kathrin0000-0003-3090-3975
Baloković, Mislav0000-0003-0476-6647
Barrett, John0000-0002-9290-0764
Benson, Bradford A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Blackburn, Lindy0000-0002-9030-642X
Blundell, Raymond0000-0002-5929-5857
Bouman, Katherine L.0000-0003-0077-4367
Boyce, Hope0000-0002-6530-5783
Brinkerink, Christiaan D.0000-0002-2322-0749
Brissenden, Roger0000-0002-2556-0894
Britzen, Silke0000-0001-9240-6734
Byun, Do-Young0000-0003-1157-4109
Chael, Andrew0000-0003-2966-6220
Chan, Chi-kwan0000-0001-6337-6126
Chatterjee, Shami0000-0002-2878-1502
Chatterjee, Koushik0000-0002-2825-3590
Chesler, Paul M.0000-0001-6327-8462
Cho, Ilje0000-0001-6083-7521
Christian, Pierre0000-0001-6820-9941
Conway, John E.0000-0003-2448-9181
Cordes, James M.0000-0002-4049-1882
Crawford, Thomas M.0000-0001-9000-5013
Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro0000-0002-3945-6342
Cui, Yuzhu0000-0001-6311-4345
Davelaar, Jordy0000-0002-2685-2434
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia0000-0002-9945-682X
Deane, Roger0000-0003-1027-5043
Dempsey, Jessica0000-0003-1269-9667
Desvignes, Gregory0000-0003-3922-4055
Doeleman, Sheperd S.0000-0002-9031-0904
Eatough, Ralph P.0000-0001-6196-4135
Falcke, Heino0000-0002-2526-6724
Farah, Joseph0000-0003-4914-5625
Fish, Vincent L.0000-0002-7128-9345
Fomalont, Ed0000-0002-9036-2747
Ford, H. Alyson0000-0002-9797-0972
Fraga-Encinas, Raquel0000-0002-5222-1361
Friberg, Per0000-0002-8010-8454
Fuentes, Antonio0000-0002-8773-4933
Galison, Peter0000-0002-6429-3872
Gammie, Charles F.0000-0001-7451-8935
García, Roberto0000-0002-6584-7443
Georgiev, Boris0000-0002-3586-6424
Gold, Roman0000-0003-2492-1966
Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.0000-0001-9395-1670
Gu, Minfeng0000-0002-4455-6946
Gurwell, Mark0000-0003-0685-3621
Hada, Kazuhiro0000-0001-6906-772X
Haggard, Daryl0000-0001-6803-2138
Hesper, Ronald0000-0003-1918-6098
Ho, Luis C.0000-0001-6947-5846
Honma, Mareki0000-0003-4058-9000
Huang, Chih-Wei L.0000-0001-5641-3953
Huang, Lei0000-0002-1923-227X
Issaoun, Sara0000-0002-5297-921X
James, David J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Jeter, Britton0000-0003-2847-1712
Jiang, Wu0000-0001-7369-3539
Johnson, Michael D.0000-0002-4120-3029
Jorstad, Svetlana0000-0001-6158-1708
Jung, Taehyun0000-0001-7003-8643
Karami, Mansour0000-0001-7387-9333
Karuppusamy, Ramesh0000-0002-5307-2919
Kawashima, Tomohisa0000-0001-8527-0496
Keating, Garrett K.0000-0002-3490-146X
Kettenis, Mark0000-0002-6156-5617
Kim, Dong-Jin0000-0002-7038-2118
Kim, Jae-Young0000-0001-8229-7183
Kim, Jongsoo0000-0002-1229-0426
Kim, Junhan0000-0002-4274-9373
Kino, Motoki0000-0002-2709-7338
Koay, Jun Yi0000-0002-7029-6658
Koch, Patrick M.0000-0003-2777-5861
Koyama, Shoko0000-0002-3723-3372
Kramer, Michael0000-0002-4175-2271
Kramer, Carsten0000-0002-4908-4925
Kuo, Cheng-Yu0000-0001-6211-5581
Lauer, Tod R.0000-0003-3234-7247
Lee, Sang-Sung0000-0002-6269-594X
Levis, Aviad0000-0001-7307-632X
Li, Yan-Rong0000-0001-5841-9179
Li, Zhiyuan0000-0003-0355-6437
Lindqvist, Michael0000-0002-3669-0715
Lindahl, Greg0000-0002-6100-4772
Liu, Jun0000-0002-7615-7499
Liu, Kuo0000-0002-2953-7376
Liuzzo, Elisabetta0000-0003-0995-5201
Loinard, Laurent0000-0002-5635-3345
Lu, Ru-Sen0000-0002-7692-7967
MacDonald, Nicholas R.0000-0002-6684-8691
Mao, Jirong0000-0001-8339-1294
Marchili, Nicola0000-0002-5523-7588
Markoff, Sera0000-0001-9564-0876
Marscher, Alan P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Matsushita, Satoki0000-0002-2127-7880
Medeiros, Lia0000-0003-2342-6728
Menten, Karl M.0000-0001-6459-0669
Mizuno, Izumi0000-0002-7210-6264
Mizuno, Yosuke0000-0002-8131-6730
Moran, James M.0000-0002-3882-4414
Moriyama, Kotaro0000-0003-1364-3761
Müller, Cornelia0000-0002-2739-2994
Musoke, Gibwa0000-0003-1984-189X
Mejías, Alejandro Mus0000-0003-0329-6874
Nagar, Neil M.0000-0001-6920-662X
Nakamura, Masanori0000-0001-6081-2420
Narayan, Ramesh0000-0002-1919-2730
Natarajan, Iniyan0000-0001-8242-4373
Neilsen, Joey0000-0002-8247-786X
Neri, Roberto0000-0002-7176-4046
Ni, Chunchong0000-0003-1361-5699
Noutsos, Aristeidis0000-0002-4151-3860
Nowak, Michael A.0000-0001-6923-1315
Olivares, Héctor0000-0001-6833-7580
Ortiz-León, Gisela N.0000-0002-2863-676X
Palumbo, Daniel C. M.0000-0002-7179-3816
Park, Jongho0000-0001-6558-9053
Pen, Ue-Li0000-0003-2155-9578
Pesce, Dominic W.0000-0002-5278-9221
Plambeck, Richard0000-0001-6765-9609
Porth, Oliver0000-0002-4584-2557
Pötzl, Felix M.0000-0002-6579-8311
Prather, Ben0000-0002-0393-7734
Preciado-López, Jorge A.0000-0002-4146-0113
Psaltis, Dimitrios0000-0003-4058-2837
Pu, Hung-Yi0000-0001-9270-8812
Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh0000-0002-9248-086X
Rao, Ramprasad0000-0002-1407-7944
Rawlings, Mark G.0000-0002-6529-202X
Raymond, Alexander W.0000-0002-5779-4767
Rezzolla, Luciano0000-0002-1330-7103
Ripperda, Bart0000-0002-7301-3908
Roelofs, Freek0000-0001-5461-3687
Rose, Mel0000-0002-2016-8746
Roy, Alan L.0000-0002-1931-0135
Ruszczyk, Chet0000-0001-7278-9707
Rygl, Kazi L. J.0000-0003-4146-9043
Sánchez-Arguelles, David0000-0002-7344-9920
Sasada, Mahito0000-0001-5946-9960
Savolainen, Tuomas0000-0001-6214-1085
Shao, Lijing0000-0002-1334-8853
Shen, Zhiqiang0000-0003-3540-8746
Small, Des0000-0003-3723-5404
Sohn, Bong Won0000-0002-4148-8378
SooHoo, Jason0000-0003-1938-0720
Sun, He0000-0003-1526-6787
Tazaki, Fumie0000-0003-0236-0600
Tetarenko, Alexandra J.0000-0003-3906-4354
Tiede, Paul0000-0003-3826-5648
Tilanus, Remo P. J.0000-0002-6514-553X
Titus, Michael0000-0002-3423-4505
Toma, Kenji0000-0002-7114-6010
Torne, Pablo0000-0001-8700-6058
Traianou, Efthalia0000-0002-1209-6500
Trippe, Sascha0000-0003-0465-1559
Bemmel, Ilse van0000-0001-5473-2950
van Langevelde, Huib Jan0000-0002-0230-5946
van Rossum, Daniel R.0000-0001-7772-6131
Wagner, Jan0000-0003-1105-6109
Ward-Thompson, Derek0000-0003-1140-2761
Wardle, John0000-0002-8960-2942
Weintroub, Jonathan0000-0002-4603-5204
Wex, Norbert0000-0003-4058-2837
Wharton, Robert0000-0002-7416-5209
Wielgus, Maciek0000-0002-8635-4242
Wong, George N.0000-0001-6952-2147
Wu, Qingwen0000-0003-4773-4987
Yoon, Doosoo0000-0001-8694-8166
Young, André0000-0003-0000-2682
Young, Ken0000-0002-3666-4920
Yuan, Feng0000-0003-3564-6437
Yuan, Ye-Fei0000-0002-7330-4756
Zensus, J. Anton0000-0001-7470-3321
Zhao, Guang-Yao0000-0002-4417-1659
Zhao, Shan-Shan0000-0002-9774-3606
Bruni, Gabriele0000-0002-5182-6289
Hernández-Gómez, Antonio0000-0001-7520-4305
Ingram, Adam0000-0002-5311-9078
Komossa, S.0000-0002-9214-4428
Kovalev, Y. Y.0000-0001-9303-3263
Muders, Dirk0000-0002-2315-2571
Perucho, Manel0000-0003-2784-0379
Valtonen, Mauri0000-0001-8580-8874
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 February 2; revised 2021 March 11; accepted 2021 March 12; published 2021 March 24. The ALMA measurements presented in this work provide critical constraints for the calibration and analysis of simultaneously obtained VLBI data. This is an essential resource for two instruments like the EHT and the GMVA which have the resolving power to reveal polarization structures and measure magnetic field strengths and particle densities on horizon scales (in the case of M87 and Sgr A*) and/or in the inner few parsecs for the AGNs. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO; Europe, representing its member states), NSF, and National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, together with National Research Council (Canada), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST; Taiwan), Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA; Taiwan), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI; Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)/NRAO, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. This Letter makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.00413.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01116.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01216.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01114.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01154.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01176.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01198.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01290.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01404.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.00841.V ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.01022.S ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.01170.S ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.00415.S ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.00608.S The authors of the present Letter thank the following organizations and programs: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496, 315721); the Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project, supported by the European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action under grant agreement 731016; the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship; Allegro, the European ALMA Regional Centre node in the Netherlands, the NL astronomy research network NOVA and the astronomy institutes of the University of Amsterdam, Leiden University and Radboud University; the black hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID), Chile via NCN19_058 (TITANs) and Fondecyt 3190878; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, projects U0004-246083, U0004-259839, F0003-272050, M0037-279006, F0003-281692, 104497, 275201, 263356); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico–Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA–UNAM, projects IN112417 and IN112820); the European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" (grant 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177 and GenT Program (project CIDEGENT/2018/021); MICINN Research Project PID2019-108995GB-C22; the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grants GBMF-3561, GBMF-5278); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; the Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); Joint Princeton/Flatiron and Joint Columbia/Flatiron Postdoctoral Fellowships, research at the Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation; the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJSSW-SYS008, ZDBS-LY-SLH011); the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007); the Malaysian Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) FRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6; the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, and 107-2119-M-110-005, MOST 108-2112-M-001-048 and MOST 109-2124-M-001-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC20K1567, NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant 80NSSC20K0527, and Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51431.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555, ); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST-1337663, AST-1440254, AST-1555365, AST-1615796, AST-1715061, AST-1716327, AST-1716536, OISE-1743747, AST-1816420, AST-1903847, AST-1935980, AST-2034306); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11933007, 11991052, 11991053); a fellowship of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M671266); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China; the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015- R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561, Basic Research Support Grant 2019R1F1A1059721); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grants PGC2018-098915-B-C21, AYA2016-80889-P, PID2019-108995GB-C21); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucía (grant P18-FR-1769), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (grant 2019AEP112); the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE (Contract 89233218CNA000001); the Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universitá e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA (CUP C52I13000140001); the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra TM6-17006X; the GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project CIDEGENT/2018/021; NASA NuSTAR award 80NSSC20K0645; Chandra award DD7-18089X. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TG-AST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Compute Ontario (http://computeontario.ca), Calcul Quebec (http://www.calculquebec.ca) and Compute Canada (http://www.computecanada.ca). We thank the staff at the participating observatories in the GMVA and EHT, correlation centers, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. The GMVA is coordinated by the VLBI group at the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) and consists of telescopes operated by MPIfR, IRAM, Onsala, Metsahovi, Yebes, the Korean VLBI Network, the Green Bank Observatory and the VLBA. APEX is a collaboration between the MPIfR (Germany), ESO, and the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden). The SMA is a joint project between the SAO and ASIAA and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The JCMT is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of the NAOJ, ASIAA, and KASI, as well as the Ministry of Finance of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFA0402700) of China. Additional funding support for the JCMT is provided by the Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) and participating universities in the UK and Canada. The LMT is a project operated by the Instituto Nacional de Astrófisica, Óptica, y Electrónica (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (USA). The IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain is operated by IRAM and supported by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), MPG (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) and IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Spain). The SMT is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory, a part of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona, with financial support of operations from the State of Arizona and financial support for instrumentation development from the NSF. The SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. The SPT hydrogen maser was provided on loan from the GLT, courtesy of ASIAA. The EHTC has received generous donations of FPGA chips from Xilinx Inc., under the Xilinx University Program. The EHTC has benefited from technology shared under open-source license by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The EHT project is grateful to T4Science and Microsemi for their assistance with Hydrogen Masers. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System. We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the extended staff of the ALMA, both from the inception of the ALMA Phasing Project through the observational campaigns of 2017 and 2018. We would like to thank A. Deller and W. Brisken for EHT-specific support with the use of DiFX. We thank Sergio Martin for the help interpreting the Sgr A* spectrum in SPW = 2. We acknowledge the significance that Maunakea, where the SMA and JCMT EHT stations are located, has for the indigenous Hawaiian people. M.P. acknowledges support by the Spanish Ministry of Science through Grants PID2019-105510GB-C31, and PID2019-107427GB-C33, and from the Generalitat Valenciana through grant PROMETEU/2019/071.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Academy of Finland274477
Academy of Finland284495
Academy of Finland312496
Academy of Finland315721
European Research Council (ERC)731016
Alexander von Humboldt StiftungUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
AllegroUNSPECIFIED
ALMA Regional CentreUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA)UNSPECIFIED
University of AmsterdamUNSPECIFIED
Leiden UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Radboud UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton Foundation60477
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)NCN19_058
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)3190878
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)U0004-246083
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)U0004-259839
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)F0003-272050
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)M0037-279006
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)F0003-281692
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)104497
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)275201
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)263356
Delaney Family John A. Wheeler ChairUNSPECIFIED
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112417
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112820
European Research Council (ERC)610058
Generalitat ValencianaAPOSTD/2018/177
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-108995GB-C22
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-3561
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-5278
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)UNSPECIFIED
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Flatiron InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Columbia UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17J08829
Key Research Program of Frontier SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SLH057
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJSSW-SYS008
Chinese Academy of SciencesZDBS-LY-SLH011
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18KK0090
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03656
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18K03709
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)25120007
Malaysian Fundamental Research GrantFRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-001-025-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-001-011
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2119-M-001-027
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-017
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-020
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-110-005
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2112-M-001-048
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)109-2124-M-001-005
NASA80NSSC20K1567
NASA80NSSC20K0527
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51431.001-A
NASANAS5-26555
National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400704
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
NSFAST-0096454
NSFAST-0352953
NSFAST-0521233
NSFAST-0705062
NSFAST-0905844
NSFAST-0922984
NSFAST-1126433
NSFAST-1140030
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144085
NSFAST-1207704
NSFAST-1207730
NSFAST-1207752
NSFMRI-1228509
NSFOPP-1248097
NSFAST-1310896
NSFAST-1337663
NSFAST-1440254
NSFAST-1555365
NSFAST-1615796
NSFAST-1715061
NSFAST-1716327
NSFAST-1716536
NSFOISE-1743747
NSFAST-1816420
NSFAST-1903847
NSFAST-1935980
NSFAST-2034306
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573051
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633006
National Natural Science Foundation of China11650110427
National Natural Science Foundation of China10625314
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
National Natural Science Foundation of China11725312
National Natural Science Foundation of China11933007
National Natural Science Foundation of China11991052
National Natural Science Foundation of China11991053
China Postdoctoral Science Foundation2020M671266
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
National Youth Thousand Talents Program of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1A2A1033752
National Research Foundation of Korea2015-R1D1A1A01056807
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1D3A1066561
National Research Foundation of Korea2019R1F1A1059721
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
Spinoza PrizeSPI 78-409
South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2017-00648
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)PGC2018-098915-B-C21
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)PID2019-108995GB-C21
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MCIU)UNSPECIFIED
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Toray Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaP18-FR-1769
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas2019AEP112
Department of Energy (DOE)89233218CNA000001
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, Università e Ricerca (MIUR)CUP C52I13000140001
European Research Council (ERC)730562 RadioNet
ALMA North America Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
NASA ChandraTM6-17006X
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
NASA80NSSC20K0645
NASA ChandraDD7-18089X
NSFACI-1548562
NSFDBI-0735191
NSFDBI-1265383
NSFDBI-1743442
NSFTG-AST170024
NSFTG-AST080026N
NSFAST-170028
Compute OntarioUNSPECIFIED
Calcul QuebecUNSPECIFIED
Compute CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Smithsonian InstitutionUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Finance (China)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402700
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
State of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
NSFPLR-1248097
NSFPHY-1125897
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF 947
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-105510GB-C31
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-107427GB-C33
Generalitat ValencianaPROMETEU/2019/071
Subject Keywords:Magnetic fields; Relativistic jets; Active galactic nuclei; Radio jets; Polarimetry; Interferometry; Long baseline interferometry; Galactic center; Supermassive black holes; Blazars; Radio galaxies; Quasars
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Magnetic fields (994); Relativistic jets (1390); Active galactic nuclei (16); Radio jets (1347); Polarimetry (1278); Interferometry (808); Long baseline interferometry (932); Galactic center (565)
DOI:10.3847/2041-8213/abee6a
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210405-101639564
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210405-101639564
Official Citation:Ciriaco Goddi et al 2021 ApJL 910 L14
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108619
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:07 Apr 2021 17:15
Last Modified:07 Apr 2021 17:15

Repository Staff Only: item control page