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Experimental Pauli-frame randomization on a superconducting qubit

Ware, Matthew and Ribeill, Guilhem and Ristè, Diego and Ryan, Colm A. and Johnson, Blake and da Silva, Marcus P. (2021) Experimental Pauli-frame randomization on a superconducting qubit. Physical Review A, 103 (4). Art. No. 042604. ISSN 2469-9926. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.103.042604.

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The promise of quantum computing with imperfect qubits relies on the ability of a quantum computing system to scale cheaply through error correction and fault tolerance. While fault tolerance requires relatively mild assumptions about the nature of qubit errors, the overhead associated with coherent and non-Markovian errors can be orders of magnitude larger than the overhead associated with purely stochastic Markovian errors. One proposal to address this challenge is to randomize the circuits of interest, shaping the errors to be stochastic Pauli errors but leaving the aggregate computation unaffected. The randomization technique can also suppress couplings to slow degrees of freedom associated with non-Markovian evolution. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of Pauli-frame randomization in a superconducting circuit system, exploiting a flexible programming and control infrastructure to achieve this with low effort. We use high-accuracy gate-set tomography to characterize in detail the properties of the circuit error, with and without the randomization procedure, which allows us to make rigorous statements about Markovianity as well as the nature of the observed errors. We demonstrate that randomization suppresses signatures of non-Markovian evolution to statistically insignificant levels, from a Markovian model violation ranging from 43σ to 1987σ, down to violations between 0.3σ and 2.7σ under randomization. Moreover, we demonstrate that, under randomization, the experimental errors are well described by a Pauli error model, with model violations that are similarly insignificant (between 0.8σ and 2.7σ). Importantly, all these improvements in the model accuracy were obtained without degradation to fidelity, and with some improvements to error rates as quantified by the diamond norm. This demonstrates the ability of Pauli-frame randomization to shape noise into forms that are more benign for quantum error correction and fault tolerance.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ware, Matthew0000-0002-5593-1860
Ribeill, Guilhem0000-0003-3269-7124
Ristè, Diego0000-0003-1458-2585
Ryan, Colm A.0000-0001-9923-3354
Johnson, Blake0000-0002-6880-4828
da Silva, Marcus P.0000-0002-6641-8712
Additional Information:© 2021 American Physical Society. Received 17 December 2020; accepted 22 March 2021; published 8 April 2021. We thank Robin Blume-Kohout, Erik Nielsen, Joel Wallman, and Joseph Emerson for fruitful discussions, and the anonymous referees for comments that helped improved the presentation of the paper. We also thank Alan Howsare, Adam Moldawer, and Ram Chelakara at Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems for sample fabrication. The qubit design and fabrication were funded by Internal Research and Development at Raytheon BBN Technologies and directed by Thomas Ohki. This work was funded by LPS/ARO Grant No. W911NF-14-C-0048. The content of this paper does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. M.W., G.R., and M.P.S. wrote the manuscript. M.W., G.R., and D.R. performed the experiment, while C.R. and B.J. built the control software and electronics infrastructure. G.R. and M.W. designed the device and assisted in fabrication. M.P.S. proposed the experiment, and wrote the experiment generation scripts. M.W. and M.P.S. performed the data analysis.
Group:AWS Center for Quantum Computing
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Raytheon BBN TechnologiesUNSPECIFIED
Army Research Office (ARO)W911NF-14-C-0048
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210408-093531729
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108653
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Apr 2021 01:25
Last Modified:09 Apr 2021 01:25

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