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Enhanced x-ray emission coinciding with giant radio pulses from the Crab Pulsar

Enoto, Teruaki and Terasawa, Toshio and Kisaka, Shota and Hu, Chin-Ping and Guillot, Sebastien and Lewandowska, Natalia and Malacaria, Christian and Ray, Paul S. and Ho, Wynn C. G. and Harding, Alice K. and Okajima, Takashi and Arzoumanian, Zaven and Gendreau, Keith C. and Wadiasingh, Zorawar and Markwardt, Craig B. and Soong, Yang and Kenyon, Steve and Bogdanov, Slavko and Majid, Walid A. and Güver, Tolga and Jaisawal, Gaurava K. and Foster, Rick and Murata, Yasuhiro and Takeuchi, Hiroshi and Takefuji, Kazuhiro and Sekido, Mamoru and Yonekura, Yoshinori and Misawa, Hiroaki and Tsuchiya, Fuminori and Aoki, Takahiko and Tokumaru, Munetoshi and Honma, Mareki and Kameya, Osamu and Oyama, Tomoaki and Asano, Katsuaki and Shibata, Shinpei and Tanaka, Shuta J. (2021) Enhanced x-ray emission coinciding with giant radio pulses from the Crab Pulsar. Science, 372 (6538). pp. 187-190. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.abd4659. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210409-085705653

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Abstract

Giant radio pulses (GRPs) are sporadic bursts emitted by some pulsars that last a few microseconds and are hundreds to thousands of times brighter than regular pulses from these sources. The only GRP-associated emission outside of radio wavelengths is from the Crab Pulsar, where optical emission is enhanced by a few percentage points during GRPs. We observed the Crab Pulsar simultaneously at x-ray and radio wavelengths, finding enhancement of the x-ray emission by 3.8 ± 0.7% (a 5.4σ detection) coinciding with GRPs. This implies that the total emitted energy from GRPs is tens to hundreds of times higher than previously known. We discuss the implications for the pulsar emission mechanism and extragalactic fast radio bursts.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd4659DOIArticle
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/suppl/2021/04/07/372.6538.187.DC1PublisherSupplementary Materials
https://arxiv.org/abs/2104.03492arXivDiscussion Paper
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4586922DOICode
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Enoto, Teruaki0000-0003-1244-3100
Hu, Chin-Ping0000-0001-8551-2002
Guillot, Sebastien0000-0002-6449-106X
Lewandowska, Natalia0000-0003-0771-6581
Malacaria, Christian0000-0002-0380-0041
Ray, Paul S.0000-0002-5297-5278
Ho, Wynn C. G.0000-0002-6089-6836
Harding, Alice K.0000-0001-6119-859X
Wadiasingh, Zorawar0000-0002-9249-0515
Markwardt, Craig B.0000-0001-9803-3879
Bogdanov, Slavko0000-0002-9870-2742
Majid, Walid A.0000-0002-4694-4221
Güver, Tolga0000-0002-3531-9842
Jaisawal, Gaurava K.0000-0002-6789-2723
Tsuchiya, Fuminori0000-0003-3386-6794
Honma, Mareki0000-0003-4058-9000
Oyama, Tomoaki0000-0003-4046-2923
Shibata, Shinpei0000-0002-8554-9240
Additional Information:© 2021 American Association for the Advancement of Science. This is an article distributed under the terms of the Science Journals Default License. Received 23 June 2020; accepted 5 March 2021. We thank Y. Terada and N. Kawai for suggestions on our analysis and manuscript; the Usuda 64-m antenna operation support team in Space Tracking and Communication Center and ISAS, JAXA for coordinating simultaneous observations with NICER; and E. Kawai and S. Hasegawa of the Space Time Standard Laboratory of the Kashima Space Technology Center of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) for supporting observations with the Kashima 34-m antenna. NICER analysis software and data calibration were provided by the NASA NICER mission and the Astrophysics Explorers Program. T.E., T.T., H.M., K.A., M.H., S.S., S.J.T., and S.K. are supported by JSPS/MEXT KAKENHI grant nos. 15H00845, 15K05069, 16H02198, 17H01116, 17K18270, 17K18776, 18H01245, 18H01246, 18H04584, and 19K14712. T.E. acknowledges Hakubi projects of Kyoto University and RIKEN. W.C.G.H. acknowledges support through grant no. 80NSSC20K0278 from NASA. C.H. was supported as the JSPS International Research Fellow (ID: P18318) and by the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan through grant no. MOST 109-2112-M-018-009-MY3. C.M. is supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA. H.T. was supported by the discretionary expenses of the director of Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA. W.A.M performed research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the NASA. Author contributions: T.E. and T.T. led this radio-x-ray collaboration. T.T. and C.H. led the radio and x-ray timing analyses, respectively. S.G. performed the x-ray spectral analyses. S.K. led the theoretical discussion. P.S.R., T.O., Z.A., K.C.G., C.B.M., Y.S., S.K., S.B., and R.F. were responsible for NICER detector development, timing calibration, and observation planning. C.M., W.C.G.H., A.K.H., Z.W., W.A.M., T.G., G.K.J., K.A., S.S., N.L., and S.J.T. contributed to the theoretical interpretation. Y.M., H.T., K.T., M.S., Y.Y., H.M., F.T., T.A., M.T., M.H., O.K., and T.O. were responsible for the radio observations and associated data analyses. N.L. contributed the summary of previous studies. The authors declare no competing interests. Data and materials availability: The NICER x-ray data are available from the NASA HEASARC archive https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ under the observation IDs listed in table S6. The HEASOFT x-ray analysis software is available from https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/software/heasoft/. The GRP event lists and our analysis source codes are available on Zenodo (32).
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)15H00845
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)15K05069
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)16H02198
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H01116
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17K18270
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17K18776
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01246
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H04584
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)19K14712
Kyoto UniversityUNSPECIFIED
RIKENUNSPECIFIED
NASA80NSSC20K0278
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)P18318
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)109-2112-M-018-009-MY3
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)UNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:6538
DOI:10.1126/science.abd4659
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210409-085705653
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210409-085705653
Official Citation:Enhanced x-ray emission coinciding with giant radio pulses from the Crab Pulsar. Asano, Shinpei Shibata and Shuta J. Tanaka Misawa, Fuminori Tsuchiya, Takahiko Aoki, Munetoshi Tokumaru, Mareki Honma, Osamu Kameya, Tomoaki Oyama, Katsuaki Jaisawal, Rick Foster, Yasuhiro Murata, Hiroshi Takeuchi, Kazuhiro Takefuji, Mamoru Sekido, Yoshinori Yonekura, Hiroaki Wadiasingh, Craig B. Markwardt, Yang Soong, Steve Kenyon, Slavko Bogdanov, Walid A. Majid, Tolga Güver, Gaurava K. Paul S. Ray, Wynn C.G. Ho, Alice K. Harding, Takashi Okajima, Zaven Arzoumanian, Keith C. Gendreau, Zorawar Teruaki Enoto, Toshio Terasawa, Shota Kisaka, Chin-Ping Hu, Sebastien Guillot, Natalia Lewandowska, Christian Malacaria. Science 372 (6538), 187-190; DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4659
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108671
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:11 Apr 2021 23:17
Last Modified:19 Apr 2021 17:35

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