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The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] Survey: kinematic diversity and rotation in massive star-forming galaxies at z ~ 4.4–5.9

Jones, G. C. and Vergani, D. and Romano, M. and Ginolfi, M. and Fudamoto, Y. and Béthermin, M. and Fujimoto, S. and Lemaux, B. C. and Morselli, L. and Capak, P. and Cassata, P. and Faisst, A. and Le Fèvre, O. and Schaerer, D. and Silverman, J. D. and Yan, Lin and Boquien, M. and Cimatti, A. and Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. and Ibar, E. and Maiolino, R. and Rizzo, F. and Talia, M. and Zamorani, G. (2021) The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] Survey: kinematic diversity and rotation in massive star-forming galaxies at z ~ 4.4–5.9. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 507 (3). pp. 3540-3563. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab2226.

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While the kinematics of galaxies up to z ∼ 3 have been characterized in detail, only a handful of galaxies at high redshift (z > 4) have been examined in such a way. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Large Program to INvestigate [C II] at Early times (ALPINE) survey observed a statistically significant sample of 118 star-forming main-sequence galaxies at z = 4.4–5.9 in [C II]158 μμm emission, increasing the number of such observations by nearly 10×. A preliminary qualitative classification of these sources revealed a diversity of kinematic types (i.e. rotators, mergers, and dispersion-dominated systems). In this work, we supplement the initial classification by applying quantitative analyses to the ALPINE data: a tilted ring model (TRM) fitting code (^(3D)BAROLO), a morphological classification (Gini-M₂₀), and a set of disc identification criteria. Of the 75 [C II]-detected ALPINE galaxies, 29 are detected at sufficient significance and spatial resolution to allow for TRM fitting and the derivation of morphological and kinematic parameters. These 29 sources constitute a high-mass subset of the ALPINE sample (⁠M∗ > 10^(9.5) M_⊙). We robustly classify 14 of these sources (six rotators, five mergers, and three dispersion-dominated systems); the remaining sources showing complex behaviour. By exploring the G-M₂₀ of z > 4 rest-frame far-infrared and [C II] data for the first time, we find that our 1 arcsec ∼ 6 kpc resolution data alone are insufficient to separate galaxy types. We compare the rotation curves and dynamical mass profiles of the six ALPINE rotators to the two previously detected z ∼ 4–6 unlensed main-sequence rotators, finding high rotational velocities (∼50–250 km s⁻¹) and a diversity of rotation curve shapes.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemALMA Data Archive ItemALPINE Data Release Page
Jones, G. C.0000-0002-0267-9024
Vergani, D.0000-0003-0898-2216
Romano, M.0000-0002-9948-3916
Ginolfi, M.0000-0002-8231-821X
Fudamoto, Y.0000-0001-7440-8832
Béthermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
Fujimoto, S.0000-0001-7201-5066
Lemaux, B. C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Morselli, L.0000-0003-0753-2571
Capak, P.0000-0003-3578-6843
Cassata, P.0000-0002-6716-4400
Faisst, A.0000-0002-9382-9832
Le Fèvre, O.0000-0001-5891-2596
Schaerer, D.0000-0001-7144-7182
Silverman, J. D.0000-0002-0000-6977
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Boquien, M.0000-0003-0946-6176
Cimatti, A.0000-0002-4409-5633
Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.0000-0003-0348-2917
Maiolino, R.0000-0002-4985-3819
Talia, M.0000-0003-4352-2063
Zamorani, G.0000-0002-2318-301X
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2021 July 29. Received 2021 July 29; in original form 2021 April 7. Published: 09 August 2021. We thank the anonymous referee for useful feedback that resulted in an improved manuscript. This paper is based on data obtained with the ALMA Observatory, under Large Program 2017.1.00428.L. We also analyse archival data from ALMA programs 2012.1.00523.S and 2017.1.01052.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium. This program is supported by the national program Cosmology and Galaxies from the CNRS in France. GCJ and RM acknowledge ERC Advanced Grant 695671 ‘QUENCH’ and support by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). JDS was supported by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number *JP18H04346*, and the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan. AC and MT acknowledge the support from grant PRIN MIUR 2017 − 20173ML3WW_001. EI acknowledges partial support from FONDECYT through grant N○ 1171710. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Le Fèvre, PI of the ALPINE survey. Data Availability: The data analysed in this work are available from the ALMA data archive ( under project code 2017.1.00428.L. Catalogues and data products are available from the ALPINE Data Release page (
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)695671
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H04346
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)20173ML3WW_001
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171710
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution – galaxies: high-redshift – galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210412-131332609
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:G C Jones, D Vergani, M Romano, M Ginolfi, Y Fudamoto, M Béthermin, S Fujimoto, B C Lemaux, L Morselli, P Capak, P Cassata, A Faisst, O Le Fèvre, D Schaerer, J D Silverman, Lin Yan, M Boquien, A Cimatti, M Dessauges-Zavadsky, E Ibar, R Maiolino, F Rizzo, M Talia, G Zamorani, The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] Survey: kinematic diversity and rotation in massive star-forming galaxies at z ~ 4.4–5.9, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 507, Issue 3, November 2021, Pages 3540–3563,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108701
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:13 Apr 2021 21:35
Last Modified:26 Oct 2021 21:49

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