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A sub-Neptune and a non-transiting Neptune-mass companion unveiled by ESPRESSO around the bright late-F dwarf HD 5278 (TOI-130)

Sozzetti, A. and Damasso, M. and Bonomo, A. S. and Alibert, Y. and Sousa, S. G. and Adibekyan, V. and Zapatero Osorio, M. R. and González Hernández, J. I. and Barros, S. C. C. and Lillo-Box, J. and Stassun, K. G. and Winn, J. and Cristiani, S. and Pepe, F. and Rebolo, R. and Santos, N. C. and Allart, R. and Barclay, T. and Bouchy, F. and Cabral, A. and Ciardi, D. and Di Marcantonio, P. and D’Odorico, V. and Ehrenreich, D. and Fasnaugh, M. and Figueira, P. and Haldemann, J. and Jenkins, J. M. and Latham, D. W. and Lavie, B. and Lo Curto, G. and Lovis, C. and Martins, C. J. A. P. and Mégevand, D. and Mehner, A. and Micela, G. and Molaro, P. and Nunes, N. J. and Oshagh, M. and Otegi, J. and Pallé, E. and Poretti, E. and Ricker, G. and Rodriguez, D. and Seager, S. and Suárez Mascareño, A. and Twicken, J. D. and Udry, S. (2021) A sub-Neptune and a non-transiting Neptune-mass companion unveiled by ESPRESSO around the bright late-F dwarf HD 5278 (TOI-130). Astronomy and Astrophysics, 648 . Art. No. A75. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202040034. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210416-073821140

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Abstract

Context. Transiting sub-Neptune-type planets, with radii approximately between 2 and 4 R_⊕, are of particular interest as their study allows us to gain insight into the formation and evolution of a class of planets that are not found in our Solar System. Aims. We exploit the extreme radial velocity (RV) precision of the ultra-stable echelle spectrograph ESPRESSO on the VLT to unveil the physical properties of the transiting sub-Neptune TOI-130 b, uncovered by the TESS mission orbiting the nearby, bright, late F-type star HD 5278 (TOI-130) with a period of P_b = 14.3 days. Methods. We used 43 ESPRESSO high-resolution spectra and broad-band photometry information to derive accurate stellar atmospheric and physical parameters of HD 5278. We exploited the TESS light curve and spectroscopic diagnostics to gauge the impact of stellar activity on the ESPRESSO RVs. We performed separate as well as joint analyses of the TESS photometry and the ESPRESSO RVs using fully Bayesian frameworks to determine the system parameters. Results. Based on the ESPRESSO spectra, the updated stellar parameters of HD 5278 are T_(eff) = 6203 ± 64 K, log g = 4.50 ± 0.11 dex, [Fe/H] = −0.12 ± 0.04 dex, M⋆ = 1.126_(−0.035)^(+0.036) M_⊙, and R⋆ = 1.194_(−0.016)^(+0.017) R_⊙. We determine HD 5278 b’s mass and radius to be M_b = 7.8_(−1.4)^(+1.5) M_⊕ and R_b = 2.45 ± 0.05R_⊕. The derived mean density, ϱ_b = 2.9_(−0.5)^(+0.6) g cm⁻³, is consistent with the bulk composition of a sub-Neptune with a substantial (~ 30%) water mass fraction and with a gas envelope comprising ~17% of the measured radius. Given the host brightness and irradiation levels, HD 5278 b is one of the best targets orbiting G-F primaries for follow-up atmospheric characterization measurements with HST and JWST. We discover a second, non-transiting companion in the system, with a period of P_c = 40.87_(−0.17)^(+0.18) days and a minimum mass of M_c sin i_c = 18.4_(−1.9)^(+1.8) M_⊕. We study emerging trends in parameters space (e.g., mass, radius, stellar insolation, and mean density) of the growing population of transiting sub-Neptunes, and provide statistical evidence for a low occurrence of close-in, 10 − 15 M_⊕ companions around G-F primaries with T_(eff) ≳ 5500 K.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202040034DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2101.12300arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Ciardi, D.0000-0002-5741-3047
Additional Information:© ESO 2021. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 30 November 2020; Accepted 27 January 2021; Published online 14 April 2021. Based on Guaranteed Time Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programme 1102.C-0744 by the ESPRESSO Consortium. The authors acknowledge the ESPRESSO project team for its effort and dedication in building the ESPRESSO instrument. This work has received financial support from the ASI-INAF agreement no. 2018-16-HH.0. M.D. acknowledges financial support from the FP7-SPACE Project ETAEARTH (GA No. 313014). A.S. We gratefully acknowledges support from the Italian Space Agency (ASI) under contract 2018-24-HH.0. The INAF authors acknowledge financial support of the Italian Ministry of Education, University, and Research with PRIN 201278X4FL and the “Progetti Premiali” funding scheme.to acknowledge the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) for supporting research with ESPRESSO through the SNSF grants no. 140649, 152721, and 166227. The ESPRESSO Instrument Project was partially funded through SNSF’s FLARE Programme for large infrastructures. This work has been carried out in part within the framework of the NCCR PlanetS supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. This work was supported by FCT - Funda cão para a Ciência e Tecnologia through national funds and by FEDER through COMPETE2020 – Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalizacão by these grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019; UIDB/04434/2020; UIDP/04434/2020; PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017; POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113; PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953; PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987; PTDC/FIS-OUT/29048/2017 & IF/00852/2015. S.C.C.B. acknowledges support from FCT through contract nr. IF/01312/2014/CP1215/CT0004. S.G.S acknowledges the support from FCT through Investigator FCT contract nr. CEECIND/00826/2018 and POPH/FSE (EC). This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project Four Aces, grant agreement no. 724427). V.A. acknowledges the support from FCT through Investigator FCT contract nr. IF/00650/2015/CP1273/CT0001. Y.A. and J.H. acknowledge the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) for supporting research through the SNSF grant 200020_192038. J.I.G.H. acknowledges financial support from Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under the 2013 Ramón y Cajal programme RYC-2013-14875. J.I.G.H., A.S.M., R.R., and C.A.P. acknowledge financial support from the Spanish MICINN AYA2017-86389-P. A.S.M. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under the 2019 Juan de la Cierva Programme. R.A. is a Trottier Postdoctoral Fellow and acknowledges support from the Trottier Family Foundation. This work was supported in part through a grant from FRQNT. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This publication makes use of The Data &Analysis Center for Exoplanets (DACE), which is a facility based at the University of Geneva (CH) dedicated toextrasolar planets data visualization, exchange and analysis. DACE is a platform of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) PlanetS, federating the expertise in Exoplanet research. The DACE platform is available at https://dace.unige.ch. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). We acknowledge the use of public TESS Alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)2018-16-HH.0
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)313014
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)2018-24-HH.0
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)PRIN 201278X4FL
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)140649
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)152721
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)166227
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UID/FIS/04434/2019
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDP/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-OUT/29048/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)IF/00852/2015IF/01312/2014/CP1215/CT0004
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)CEECIND/00826/2018
European Research Council (ERC)724427
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)IF/00650/2015/CP1273/CT0001
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)200020_192038
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)RYC-2013-14875
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)AYA2017-86389-P
Trottier Family FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Fonds de recherche du Québec – Nature et technologies (FRQNT)UNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:planetary systems – planets and satellites: composition – stars: individual: HD 5278 (TOI-130) – techniques: radial velocities – techniques: photometric – methods: miscellaneous
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202040034
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210416-073821140
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210416-073821140
Official Citation:A sub-Neptune and a non-transiting Neptune-mass companion unveiled by ESPRESSO around the bright late-F dwarf HD 5278 (TOI-130). A. Sozzetti, M. Damasso, A. S. Bonomo, Y. Alibert, S. G. Sousa, V. Adibekyan, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, J. I. González Hernández, S. C. C. Barros, J. Lillo-Box, K. G. Stassun, J. Winn, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, R. Rebolo, N. C. Santos, R. Allart, T. Barclay, F. Bouchy, A. Cabral, D. Ciardi, P. Di Marcantonio, V. D’Odorico, D. Ehrenreich, M. Fasnaugh, P. Figueira, J. Haldemann, J. M. Jenkins, D. W. Latham, B. Lavie, G. Lo Curto, C. Lovis, C. J. A. P. Martins, D. Mégevand, A. Mehner, G. Micela, P. Molaro, N. J. Nunes, M. Oshagh, J. Otegi, E. Pallé, E. Poretti, G. Ricker, D. Rodriguez, S. Seager, A. Suárez Mascareño, J. D. Twicken and S. Udry. A&A, 648 (2021) A75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202040034
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108749
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:16 Apr 2021 18:55
Last Modified:19 Apr 2021 16:32

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