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Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy in the 2020s and 2030s

Bailes, M. and Berger, B. K. and Brady, P. R. and Branchesi, M. and Danzmann, K. and Evans, M. and Holley-Bockelmann, K. and Iyer, B. R. and Kajita, T. and Katsanevas, S. and Kramer, M. and Lazzarini, A. and Lehner, L. and Losurdo, G. and Lück, H. and McClelland, D. E. and McLaughlin, M. A. and Punturo, M. and Ransom, S. and Raychaudhury, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ricci, F. and Rowan, S. and Saito, Y. and Sanders, G. H. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Schutz, B. F. and Sesana, A. and Shinkai, H. and Siemens, X. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Thorpe, J. and van den Brand, J. F. J. and Vitale, S. (2021) Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy in the 2020s and 2030s. Nature Reviews Physics, 3 (5). pp. 344-366. ISSN 2522-5820. doi:10.1038/s42254-021-00303-8.

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The 100 years since the publication of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity saw significant development of the understanding of the theory, the identification of potential astrophysical sources of sufficiently strong gravitational waves and development of key technologies for gravitational-wave detectors. In 2015, the first gravitational-wave signals were detected by the two US Advanced LIGO instruments. In 2017, Advanced LIGO and the European Advanced Virgo detectors pinpointed a binary neutron star coalescence that was also seen across the electromagnetic spectrum. The field of gravitational-wave astronomy is just starting, and this Roadmap of future developments surveys the potential for growth in bandwidth and sensitivity of future gravitational-wave detectors, and discusses the science results anticipated to come from upcoming instruments.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access
Bailes, M.0000-0003-3294-3081
Berger, B. K.0000-0002-4845-8737
Brady, P. R.0000-0002-4611-9387
Branchesi, M.0000-0003-1643-0526
Evans, M.0000-0001-8459-4499
Holley-Bockelmann, K.0000-0003-2227-1322
Kramer, M.0000-0002-4175-2271
Lehner, L.0000-0001-9682-3383
Losurdo, G.0000-0003-0452-746X
Lück, H.0000-0001-9350-4846
McClelland, D. E.0000-0001-6210-5842
McLaughlin, M. A.0000-0001-7697-7422
Punturo, M.0000-0001-8722-4485
Ransom, S.0000-0001-5799-9714
Raychaudhury, S.0000-0002-4864-4046
Reitze, D. H.0000-0002-5756-1111
Ricci, F.0000-0001-5742-5980
Rowan, S.0000-0002-0666-9907
Saito, Y.0000-0002-1354-3544
Sanders, G. H.0000-0001-5980-8838
Sathyaprakash, B. S.0000-0003-3845-7586
Schutz, B. F.0000-0001-9487-6983
Sesana, A.0000-0003-4961-1606
Shinkai, H.0000-0003-1082-2844
Siemens, X.0000-0002-7778-2990
Shoemaker, D. H.0000-0002-4147-2560
Thorpe, J.0000-0001-9276-4312
Vitale, S.0000-0002-2427-8918
Additional Information:© 2021 Nature Publishing Group. Accepted 08 March 2021; Published 14 April 2021. The authors gratefully acknowledge the following support: M. Bailes and D. E. McClelland are supported by the Australian Research Council under the ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery grant CE170100004. D. E. McClelland also acknowledges the support of the ARC Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities grant LE170100217. M. Branchesi and S. Katsanevas acknowledge the support of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme under the AHEAD2020 Project grant agreement 871158. S. Katsanevas is also supported by Université de Paris, France. M. Evans, A. Lazzarini, D. H. Reitze and D. H. Shoemaker are supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) LIGO Laboratory award PHY-1764464. M. Evans also acknowledges support from NSF award PHY-1836814. D. H. Shoemaker acknowledges support from NASA for work on LISA. T. Kajita, H. Shinkai and Y. Saito acknowledge support as members of KAGRA supported by MEXT and JSPS in Japan, NRF and Computing Infrastructure Project of KISTI-GSDC in Korea, and MoST and Academia Sinica in Taiwan. L. Lehner is supported in part by CIFAR, NSERC through a Discovery Grant and by Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science. G. Losurdo, M. Punturo and F. Ricci acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies, as well as by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) for the support to the study and design of the Einstein Telescope. H. Lück is supported by the Max Planck Society, Leibniz Universität Hannover and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Germany’s Excellence Strategy EXC2123 QuantumFrontiers programme. M. A. McLaughlin, S. Ransom and X. Siemens are supported as members of NANOGrav and SMR by the NSF Physics Frontiers Center award PHY-1430284. S. Ransom is a CJFAR Fellow at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. B. S. Sathyaprakash is supported in part by NSF awards PHY-1836779, AST-2006384 and PHY-2012083. B. F. Schutz acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom. A. Sesana is supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ERC-2018-COG under grant 818691 (B Massive). J. Thorpe acknowledges the support of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). J. F. J. van den Brand is supported by the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. S. Vitale is supported by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and INFN. Author Contributions: The authors contributed equally to all aspects of the article. The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests. Peer review information: Nature Reviews Physics thanks Vitor Cardoso, Nicolas Yunes, Alberto Vecchio and the other two anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Australian Research CouncilCE170100004
Australian Research CouncilLE170100217
European Research Council (ERC)871158
Université de ParisUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Government of CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Province of Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Leibniz Universität HannoverUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)EXC2123
National Radio Astronomy ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)818691
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Compact astrophysical objects; General relativity and gravity; High-energy astrophysics; Transient astrophysical phenomena
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210421-144551098
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Bailes, M., Berger, B.K., Brady, P.R. et al. Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy in the 2020s and 2030s. Nat Rev Phys 3, 344–366 (2021).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108788
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 Apr 2021 18:47
Last Modified:06 May 2021 17:44

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