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JAGWAR Prowls LIGO/Virgo O3 Paper I: Radio Search of a Possible Multimessenger Counterpart of the Binary Black Hole Merger Candidate S191216ap

Bhakta, D. and Mooley, K. P. and Corsi, A. and Balasubramanian, A. and Dobie, D. and Frail, D. A. and Hallinan, G. and Kaplan, D. L. and Myers, S.T. and Singer, L. P. (2021) JAGWAR Prowls LIGO/Virgo O3 Paper I: Radio Search of a Possible Multimessenger Counterpart of the Binary Black Hole Merger Candidate S191216ap. Astrophysical Journal, 911 (2). Art. No. 77. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abeaa8.

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We present a sensitive search with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array for the radio counterpart of the gravitational wave candidate S191216ap, which is classified as a binary black hole merger and suggested to be a possible multimessenger event, based on the detection of a high-energy neutrino and a TeV photon. We carried out a blind search at C band (4–8 GHz) over 0.3 deg² of the gamma-ray counterpart of S191216ap reported by the High-Altitude Water Cerenkov Observatory (HAWC). Our search, spanning three epochs over 130 days of postmerger and having a mean source-detection threshold of 75 μJy beam⁻¹ (4σ), yielded five variable sources associated with active galactic nucleus activity and no definitive counterpart of S191216ap. We find <2% (3.0% ± 1.3%) of the persistent radio sources at 6 GHz to be variable on a timescale of <1 week (week–months), consistent with previous radio variability studies. Our 4σ radio luminosity upper limit of ~1.2 × 10²⁸ erg s⁻¹ Hz⁻¹ on the afterglow of S191216ap, within the HAWC error region, is 5–10 times deeper than previous binary black hole (BBH) radio afterglow searches. Comparing this upper limit with theoretical expectations given by Perna et al. for putative jets launched by BBH mergers, for on-axis jets with energy ≃10⁴⁹ erg, we can rule out jet opening angles ≾ 20° (assuming that the counterpart lies within the 1σ HAWC region that we observed).

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Bhakta, D.0000-0002-7965-3076
Mooley, K. P.0000-0002-2557-5180
Corsi, A.0000-0001-8104-3536
Balasubramanian, A.0000-0003-0477-7645
Dobie, D.0000-0003-0699-7019
Hallinan, G.0000-0002-7083-4049
Kaplan, D. L.0000-0001-6295-2881
Singer, L. P.0000-0001-9898-5597
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 October 16; revised 2021 February 25; accepted 2021 February 26; published 2021 April 19. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. We would like to thank the NRAO staff, especially Amy Mioduszewski, Heidi Medlin, Drew Medlin, Tony Perreault and Abi Smoake for help with observation scheduling and computing. K.P.M. is currently a Jansky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. K.P.M. and G.H. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation Grant AST-1911199. A.C., A.B., and D.B. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation via the CAREER grant #1455090. D.K. is supported by NSF grant AST-1816492.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Jansky FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Surveys; Catalogs; Radio continuum emission
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Surveys (1671); Catalogs (205); Radio continuum emission (1340)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210423-164859157
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:D. Bhakta et al 2021 ApJ 911 77
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108837
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:27 Apr 2021 15:21
Last Modified:19 Jan 2023 16:47

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