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Broadband Multi-wavelength Properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign

Algaba, J. C. and Anczarski, J. and Asada, K. and Baloković, M. and Chandra, S. and Cui, Y.-Z. and Falcone, A. D. and Giroletti, M. and Goddi, C. and Hada, K. and Haggard, D. and Jorstad, S. and Kaur, A. and Kawashima, T. and Keating, G. and Kim, J.-Y. and Kino, M. and Komossa, S. and Kravchenko, E. V. and Krichbaum, T. P. and Lee, S.-S. and Lu, R.-S. and Lucchini, M. and Markoff, S. and Neilsen, J. and Nowak, M. A. and Park, J. and Principe, G. and Ramakrishnan, V. and Reynolds, M. T. and Sasada, M. and Savchenko, S. S. and Williamson, K. E. and Akiyama, Kazunori and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Anantua, Richard and Azulay, Rebecca and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Ball, David and Barrett, John and Bintley, Dan and Benson, Bradford A. and Blackburn, Lindy and Blundell, Raymond and Boland, Wilfred and Bouman, Katherine L. and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Boyce, Hope and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broderick, Avery E. and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chael, Andrew and Chan, Chi-kwan and Chatterjee, Shami and Chatterjee, Koushik and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Chesler, Paul M. and Cho, Ilje and Christian, Pierre and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crawford, Thomas M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro and Davelaar, Jordy and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Dexter, Jason and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Eatough, Ralph P. and Falcke, Heino and Farah, Joseph and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Ford, H. Alyson and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Fuentes, Antonio and Galison, Peter and Gammie, Charles F. and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Georgiev, Boris and Gold, Roman and Gómez, José L. and Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I. and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Ikeda, Shiro and Inoue, Makoto and Issaoun, Sara and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Janssen, Michael and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra and Johnson, Michael D. and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Dong-Jin and Kim, Jongsoo and Kim, Junhan and Koay, Jun Yi and Kofuji, Yutaro and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lauer, Tod R. and Levis, Aviad and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Lico, Rocco and Lindahl, Greg and Liu, Jun and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Loinard, Laurent and Lonsdale, Colin and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mao, Jirong and Marchili, Nicola and Marrone, Daniel P. and Marscher, Alan P. and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Matsushita, Satoki and Matthews, Lynn D. and Medeiros, Lia and Menten, Karl M. and Mizuno, Izumi and Mizuno, Yosuke and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Müller, Cornelia and Musoke, Gibwa and Mejías, Alejandro Mus and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Nathanail, Antonios and Neri, Roberto and Ni, Chunchong and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Ortiz-León, Gisela N. and Oyama, Tomoaki and Özel, Feryal and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Pesce, Dominic W. and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Pötzl, Felix M. and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Psaltis, Dimitrios and Pu, Hung-Yi and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ricarte, Angelo and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Ros, Eduardo and Rose, Mel and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruszczyk, Chet and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Sun, He and Tazaki, Fumie and Tetarenko, Alexandra J. and Tiede, Paul and Tilanus, Remo P. 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J. and Lundy, M. and Maier, G. and Moriarty, P. and Mukherjee, R. and Nieto, D. and Nievas-Rosillo, M. and O’Brien, S. and Ong, R. A. and Otte, A. N. and Patel, S. and Pfrang, K. and Pohl, M. and Prado, R. R. and Pueschel, E. and Quinn, J. and Ragan, K. and Reynolds, P. T. and Ribeiro, D. and Richards, G. T. and Roache, E. and Rulten, C. and Ryan, J. L. and Santander, M. and Sembroski, G. H. and Shang, R. and Weinstein, A. and Williams, D. A. and Williamson, T. J and Hirota, Tomoya and Cui, Lang and Niinuma, Kotaro and Ro, Hyunwook and Sakai, Nobuyuki and Sawada-Satoh, Satoko and Wajima, Kiyoaki and Wang, Na and Liu, Xiang and Yonekura, Yoshinori (2021) Broadband Multi-wavelength Properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 911 (1). Art. No. L11. ISSN 2041-8205. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abef71.

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In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with theoretical expectations for a weakly accreting supermassive black hole of mass ~6.5 × 10⁹ M_⊙. The EHTC also partnered with several international facilities in space and on the ground, to arrange an extensive, quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign. This Letter presents the results and analysis of this campaign, as well as the multi-wavelength data as a legacy data repository. We captured M87 in a historically low state, and the core flux dominates over HST-1 at high energies, making it possible to combine core flux constraints with the more spatially precise very long baseline interferometry data. We present the most complete simultaneous multi-wavelength spectrum of the active nucleus to date, and discuss the complexity and caveats of combining data from different spatial scales into one broadband spectrum. We apply two heuristic, isotropic leptonic single-zone models to provide insight into the basic source properties, but conclude that a structured jet is necessary to explain M87's spectrum. We can exclude that the simultaneous γ-ray emission is produced via inverse Compton emission in the same region producing the EHT mm-band emission, and further conclude that the γ-rays can only be produced in the inner jets (inward of HST-1) if there are strongly particle-dominated regions. Direct synchrotron emission from accelerated protons and secondaries cannot yet be excluded.

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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Algaba, J. C.0000-0001-6993-1696
Anczarski, J.0000-0003-4317-3385
Baloković, M.0000-0003-0476-6647
Chandra, S.0000-0002-8776-1835
Cui, Y.-Z.0000-0001-6311-4345
Falcone, A. D.0000-0002-5068-7344
Giroletti, M.0000-0002-8657-8852
Goddi, C.0000-0002-2542-7743
Hada, K.0000-0001-6906-772X
Haggard, D.0000-0001-6803-2138
Jorstad, S.0000-0001-6158-1708
Kaur, A.0000-0002-0878-1193
Kawashima, T.0000-0001-8527-0496
Keating, G.0000-0002-3490-146X
Kim, J.-Y.0000-0001-8229-7183
Kino, M.0000-0002-2709-7338
Komossa, S.0000-0002-9214-4428
Kravchenko, E. V.0000-0003-4540-4095
Krichbaum, T. P.0000-0002-4892-9586
Lee, S.-S.0000-0002-6269-594X
Lu, R.-S.0000-0002-7692-7967
Markoff, S.0000-0001-9564-0876
Neilsen, J.0000-0002-8247-786X
Nowak, M. A.0000-0001-6923-1315
Park, J.0000-0001-6558-9053
Principe, G.0000-0003-0406-7387
Ramakrishnan, V.0000-0002-9248-086X
Reynolds, M. T.0000-0003-1621-9392
Sasada, M.0000-0001-5946-9960
Savchenko, S. S.0000-0003-4147-3851
Williamson, K. E.0000-0003-1318-8535
Akiyama, Kazunori0000-0002-9475-4254
Alberdi, Antxon0000-0002-9371-1033
Anantua, Richard0000-0003-3457-7660
Azulay, Rebecca0000-0002-2200-5393
Baczko, Anne-Kathrin0000-0003-3090-3975
Barrett, John0000-0002-9290-0764
Benson, Bradford A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Blackburn, Lindy0000-0002-9030-642X
Blundell, Raymond0000-0002-5929-5857
Bouman, Katherine L.0000-0003-0077-4367
Bower, Geoffrey C.0000-0003-4056-9982
Boyce, Hope0000-0002-6530-5783
Brinkerink, Christiaan D.0000-0002-2322-0749
Brissenden, Roger0000-0002-2556-0894
Britzen, Silke0000-0001-9240-6734
Broderick, Avery E.0000-0002-3351-760X
Bronzwaer, Thomas0000-0003-1151-3971
Byun, Do-Young0000-0003-1157-4109
Chael, Andrew0000-0003-2966-6220
Chan, Chi-kwan0000-0001-6337-6126
Chatterjee, Shami0000-0002-2878-1502
Chatterjee, Koushik0000-0002-2825-3590
Chesler, Paul M.0000-0001-6327-8462
Cho, Ilje0000-0001-6083-7521
Christian, Pierre0000-0001-6820-9941
Conway, John E.0000-0003-2448-9181
Crawford, Thomas M.0000-0001-9000-5013
Crew, Geoffrey B.0000-0002-2079-3189
Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro0000-0002-3945-6342
Davelaar, Jordy0000-0002-2685-2434
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia0000-0002-9945-682X
Deane, Roger0000-0003-1027-5043
Dempsey, Jessica0000-0003-1269-9667
Desvignes, Gregory0000-0003-3922-4055
Dexter, Jason0000-0003-3903-0373
Doeleman, Sheperd S.0000-0002-9031-0904
Eatough, Ralph P.0000-0001-6196-4135
Falcke, Heino0000-0002-2526-6724
Farah, Joseph0000-0003-4914-5625
Fish, Vincent L.0000-0002-7128-9345
Ford, H. Alyson0000-0002-9797-0972
Fraga-Encinas, Raquel0000-0002-5222-1361
Fuentes, Antonio0000-0002-8773-4933
Galison, Peter0000-0002-6429-3872
Gammie, Charles F.0000-0001-7451-8935
García, Roberto0000-0002-6584-7443
Georgiev, Boris0000-0002-3586-6424
Gold, Roman0000-0003-2492-1966
Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.0000-0001-9395-1670
Gu, Minfeng0000-0002-4455-6946
Gurwell, Mark0000-0003-0685-3621
Hesper, Ronald0000-0003-1918-6098
Ho, Luis C.0000-0001-6947-5846
Honma, Mareki0000-0003-4058-9000
Huang, Chih-Wei L.0000-0001-5641-3953
Ikeda, Shiro0000-0002-2462-1448
Issaoun, Sara0000-0002-5297-921X
James, David J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Janssen, Michael0000-0001-8685-6544
Jeter, Britton0000-0003-2847-1712
Jiang, Wu0000-0001-7369-3539
Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra0000-0002-2662-3754
Johnson, Michael D.0000-0002-4120-3029
Jung, Taehyun0000-0001-7003-8643
Karami, Mansour0000-0001-7387-9333
Karuppusamy, Ramesh0000-0002-5307-2919
Kettenis, Mark0000-0002-6156-5617
Kim, Dong-Jin0000-0002-7038-2118
Kim, Junhan0000-0002-4274-9373
Koay, Jun Yi0000-0002-7029-6658
Koch, Patrick M.0000-0003-2777-5861
Koyama, Shoko0000-0002-3723-3372
Kramer, Michael0000-0002-4175-2271
Kramer, Carsten0000-0002-4908-4925
Lauer, Tod R.0000-0003-3234-7247
Levis, Aviad0000-0001-7307-632X
Li, Yan-Rong0000-0001-5841-9179
Li, Zhiyuan0000-0003-0355-6437
Lindqvist, Michael0000-0002-3669-0715
Lico, Rocco0000-0001-7361-2460
Lindahl, Greg0000-0002-6100-4772
Liu, Jun0000-0002-7615-7499
Liu, Kuo0000-0002-2953-7376
Liuzzo, Elisabetta0000-0003-0995-5201
Loinard, Laurent0000-0002-5635-3345
MacDonald, Nicholas R.0000-0002-6684-8691
Mao, Jirong0000-0002-7077-7195
Marchili, Nicola0000-0002-5523-7588
Marrone, Daniel P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Marscher, Alan P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Martí-Vidal, Iván0000-0003-3708-9611
Matsushita, Satoki0000-0002-2127-7880
Matthews, Lynn D.0000-0002-3728-8082
Medeiros, Lia0000-0003-2342-6728
Menten, Karl M.0000-0001-6459-0669
Mizuno, Izumi0000-0002-7210-6264
Mizuno, Yosuke0000-0002-8131-6730
Moran, James M.0000-0002-3882-4414
Moriyama, Kotaro0000-0003-1364-3761
Moscibrodzka, Monika0000-0002-4661-6332
Müller, Cornelia0000-0002-2739-2994
Musoke, Gibwa0000-0003-1984-189X
Mejías, Alejandro Mus0000-0003-0329-6874
Nagai, Hiroshi0000-0003-0292-3645
Nagar, Neil M.0000-0001-6920-662X
Nakamura, Masanori0000-0001-6081-2420
Narayan, Ramesh0000-0002-1919-2730
Natarajan, Iniyan0000-0001-8242-4373
Ni, Chunchong0000-0003-1361-5699
Noutsos, Aristeidis0000-0002-4151-3860
Olivares, Héctor0000-0001-6833-7580
Ortiz-León, Gisela N.0000-0002-2863-676X
Palumbo, Daniel C. M.0000-0002-7179-3816
Pen, Ue-Li0000-0003-2155-9578
Pesce, Dominic W.0000-0002-5278-9221
Porth, Oliver0000-0002-4584-2557
Pötzl, Felix M.0000-0002-6579-8311
Prather, Ben0000-0002-0393-7734
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Additional Information:© 2021. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2020 December 25; revised 2021 March 14; accepted 2021 March 16; published 2021 April 14. J.-C.A acknowledges support from the Malaysian Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) FRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6. M.B. acknowledges support from the YCAA Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship and the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, which is funded in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grant GBMF8273) and in part by the John Templeton Foundation. S.C. is supported by the South African Research Chairs Initiative (grant No. 64789) of the Department of Science and Innovation and the National Research Foundation of South Africa. K.H. acknowledges support from JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JJP18H03721, JP19H01943, JP18KK0090, and support from the Mitsubishi Foundation grant No. 201911019. D.H. acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Discovery Grant and the Canada Research Chairs program. T.K. acknowledges support from JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JP18K13594, JP19H01908, JP19H01906, MEXT as "Program for Promoting Researches on the Supercomputer Fugaku" (Toward a unified view of the universe: from large scale structures to planets), MEXT as "Priority Issue on post-K computer" (Elucidation of the Fundamental Laws and Evolution of the Universe) and JICFuS. A part of the calculations were carried out on the XC50 at the Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. R.-S.L. is supported by the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS and acknowledges support from the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant No. 11933007) and the Research Program of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, CAS (grant No. ZDBS-LY-SLH011). M.L. and S.M. are thankful for support from an NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) VICI award, grant No. 639.043.513. J.N. acknowledges support from SAO award DD7-18089X and NASA award 80NSSC20K0645. J.P. acknowledges financial support from the Korean National Research Foundation (NRF) via Global PhD Fellowship grant 2014H1A2A1018695 and support through the EACOA Fellowship awarded by the East Asia Core Observatories Association, which consists of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute. M.S. acknowledges support from JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JP19K14761. The authors of the present Letter thank the following organizations and programs: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496, 315721); Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID), Chile via NCN19_058 (TITANs) and FONDECYT 3190878; the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, projects 104497, 275201, 279006, 281692); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico—Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA—UNAM, project IN112417); the European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" (grant 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177 and GenT Program (project CIDEGENT/2018/021); the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grants GBMF-3561, GBMF-5278); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008); the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007); the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, 107-2119-M-110-005, 108-2112-M-001-048 and 109-2124-M-001-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC20K1567 and Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51431.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555, NuSTAR award 80NSSC20K0645, Chandra award DD7-18089X); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST-1337663, AST-1440254, AST-1555365, AST-1715061, AST-1615796, AST-1716327, OISE-1743747, AST-1816420, AST-2034306); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11991053); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015-R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Innovation (DSI) of South Africa; the South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Innovation and National Research Foundation; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grants PGC2018-098915-B-C21, AYA2016-80889-P); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE (Contract 89233218CNA000001)); the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra TM6-17006X; the GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project CIDEGENT/2018/021. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TG-AST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Compute Ontario (, Calcul Quebec ( and Compute Canada ( We thank the staff at the participating observatories, correlation centers, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. This Letter makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01154.V. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO; Europe, representing its member states), NSF, and National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, together with National Research Council (Canada), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST; Taiwan), Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA; Taiwan), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI; Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)/NRAO, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany), ESO, and the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden). The SMA is a joint project between the SAO and ASIAA and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The JCMT is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of the NAOJ, ASIAA, and KASI, as well as the Ministry of Finance of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFA0402700) of China. Additional funding support for the JCMT is provided by the Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) and participating universities in the UK and Canada. he LMT is a project operated by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica, y Electrónica (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (USA), with financial support from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología and the National Science Foundation. The IRAM 30-m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain is operated by IRAM and supported by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), MPG (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) and IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Spain). The SMT is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory, a part of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona, with financial support of operations from the State of Arizona and financial support for instrumentation development from the NSF. The SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR- 1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. The SPT hydrogen maser was provided on loan from the GLT, courtesy of ASIAA. The EHTC has received generous donations of FPGA chips from Xilinx Inc., under the Xilinx University Program. The EHTC has benefited from technology shared under open-source license by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The EHT project is grateful to T4Science and Microsemi for their assistance with Hydrogen Masers. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System. We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the extended staff of the ALMA, both from the inception of the ALMA Phasing Project through the observational campaigns of 2017 and 2018. We would like to thank A. Deller and W. Brisken for EHT-specific support with the use of DiFX. We acknowledge the significance that Maunakea, where the SMA and JCMT EHT stations are located, has for the indigenous Hawaiian people. The European VLBI Network is a joint facility of independent European, African, Asian, and North American radio astronomy institutes. Scientific results from data presented in this publication are derived from the following EVN project code: EH033. This research has made use of data obtained with 12 radio telescopes from the East Asian VLBI Network (EAVN): 2 stations from the Chinese VLBI Network (the Tianma radio telescope operated by Shanghai Astronomical Observatory of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the Nanshan radio telescope operated by Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory of CAS), 2 stations from the Japanese VLBI Network (the Hitachi station operated by Ibaraki University and the Kashima station operated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology), the Korean VLBI Network operated by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), and the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope operated by NAOJ. We thank VERA staff members who helped the operation. We are grateful to KVN staff who helped to operate the array and to correlate the data for quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of M87. The KVN is a facility operated by KASI. The KVN operations are supported by KREONET (Korea Research Environment Open NETwork), which is managed and operated by KISTI (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information). The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated by Associated Universities, Inc. This study has been supported in part by the Russian Science Foundation: project 20-62-46021. The Fermi LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in France. This work is performed in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. The support of the Namibian authorities and of the University of Namibia in facilitating the construction and operation of H.E.S.S. is gratefully acknowledged, as is the support by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), the Max Planck Society, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the Helmholtz Association, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, the French Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/IN2P3 and CNRS/INSU), the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the U.K. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the National Science Centre, Poland grant No. 2016/22/M/ST9/00382, the South African Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation, the University of Namibia, the National Commission on Research, Science & Technology of Namibia (NCRST), the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research and the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), the Australian Research Council (ARC), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and by the University of Amsterdam. We appreciate the excellent work of the technical support staff in Berlin, Zeuthen, Heidelberg, Palaiseau, Paris, Saclay, Tübingen, and in Namibia in the construction and operation of the equipment. This work benefited from services provided by the H.E.S.S. Virtual Organisation, supported by the national resource providers of the EGI Federation. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF, MPG and HGF; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (MICINN) (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R, FPA2017-90566-REDC, PID2019-104114RB-C31, PID2019-104114RB-C32, PID2019-105510GB-C31,PID2019-107847RB-C41, PID2019-107847RB-C42, PID2019-107988GB-C22); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-268/16.12.2019 and the Academy of Finland grant No. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" SEV-2016-0588 and CEX2019-000920-S, and "Maria de Maeztu" CEX2019-000918-M, the Unidad de Excelencia "Maria de Maeztu" MDM-2015-0509-18-2 and the "la Caixa" Foundation (fellowship LCF/BQ/PI18/11630012) and by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya; by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project; by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3; the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382; and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ. This research is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution, by NSERC in Canada, and by the Helmholtz Association in Germany. This research used resources provided by the Open Science Grid, which is supported by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, and resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We acknowledge the excellent work of the technical support staff at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory and at the collaborating institutions in the construction and operation of the instrument. Facilities: ALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Chandra X-ray Observatory - , EAVN - , EHT - , EVN - , Fermi - , GMVA - , H.E.S.S. - , HSA - , HST - , KVN - , MAGIC - , Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory - , NuSTAR - , SMA - , VERA - , VERITAS - , VLBA. -
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Malaysian Fundamental Research GrantFRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF8273
National Research Foundation (South Africa)64789
Department of Science and Innovation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19H01943
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18KK0090
Mitsubishi Foundation201911019
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canada Research Chairs ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19H01908
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19H01906
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China11933007
Chinese Academy of SciencesZDBS-LY-SLH011
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
National Research Foundation of Korea2014H1A2A1018695
East Asia Core Observatories AssociationUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19K14761
Academy of Finland274477
Academy of Finland284495
Academy of Finland312496
Academy of Finland315721
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)NCN19_058
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)3190878
Alexander von Humboldt StiftungUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton Foundation60477
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)104497
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)275201
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)279006
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)281692
Delaney Family John A. Wheeler ChairUNSPECIFIED
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112417
European Research Council (ERC)610058
Generalitat ValencianaAPOSTD/2018/177
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-3561
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-5278
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17J08829
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SLH057
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SYS008
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18KK0090
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03656
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18K03709
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)25120007
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-001-025-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-001-011
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2119-M-001-027
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Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-020
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Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2112-M-001-048
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)109-2124-M-001-005
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51431.001-A
National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400704
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144085
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573051
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633006
National Natural Science Foundation of China11650110427
National Natural Science Foundation of China10625314
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
National Natural Science Foundation of China11725312
National Natural Science Foundation of China11991053
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1A2A1033752
National Research Foundation of Korea2015-R1D1A1A01056807
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1D3A1066561
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)SPI 78-409
South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)UNSPECIFIED
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2017-00648
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Severo OchoaPGC2018-098915-B-C21
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Toray Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)89233218CNA000001
European Research Council (ERC)730562 RadioNet
ALMA North America Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
Compute OntarioUNSPECIFIED
Smithsonian InstitutionUNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402700
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)UNSPECIFIED
State of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF 947
Russian Science Foundation20-62-46021
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
National Science Centre (Poland)2016/22/M/ST9/00382
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-87859-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-85668-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-90566-REDC
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-104114RB-C31
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-104114RB-C32
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-105510GB-C31
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-107847RB-C41
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-107847RB-C42
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-107988GB-C22
Department of Atomic Energy (India)UNSPECIFIED
Institute for Cosmic Ray ResearchUNSPECIFIED
University of TokyoUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)DO1-268/16.12.2019
Academy of Finland320045
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000920-S
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaCEX2019-000918-M
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaMDM-2015-0509-18-2
la Caixa FoundationLCF/BQ/PI18/11630012
Croatian Science FoundationIP-2016-06-9782
University of Rijeka13.
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB823/C4
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB876/C3
National Science Centre (Poland)UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Subject Keywords:Active galactic nuclei; Radio cores; Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei; High energy astrophysics; Astrophysical black holes; Accretion
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210423-164859824
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The EHT MWL Science Working Group et al 2021 ApJL 911 L11
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108839
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:28 Apr 2021 22:22
Last Modified:28 Apr 2021 22:22

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