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Thermodynamics of a Two-Step Electroweak Phase Transition

Niemi, Lauri and Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J. and Tenkanen, Tuomas V. I. and Weir, David J. (2021) Thermodynamics of a Two-Step Electroweak Phase Transition. Physical Review Letters, 126 (17). Art. no. 171802. ISSN 0031-9007.

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New field content beyond that of the standard model of particle physics can alter the thermal history of electroweak symmetry breaking in the early Universe. In particular, the symmetry breaking may have occurred through a sequence of successive phase transitions. We study the thermodynamics of such a scenario in a real triplet extension of the standard model, using nonperturbative lattice simulations. Two-step electroweak phase transition is found to occur in a narrow region of allowed parameter space with the second transition always being first order. The first transition into the phase of nonvanishing triplet vacuum expectation value is first order in a non-negligible portion of the two-step parameter space. A comparison with two-loop perturbative calculation is provided and significant discrepancies with the nonperturbative results are identified.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Niemi, Lauri0000-0001-8068-4366
Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.0000-0001-8110-2479
Weir, David J.0000-0001-6986-0517
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI. Funded by SCOAP3. (Received 6 July 2020; accepted 2 March 2021; published 27 April 2021) We thank Oliver Gould, Mark Hindmarsh, Kimmo Kainulainen, Mikko Laine, Arttu Rajantie and Kari Rummukainen for discussions, as well as Philipp Schicho and Juuso Österman for useful correspondence on 3D loop integrals. L. N. acknowledges financial support from the Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation. This work was partly supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) under Grant No. 200020B-188712, and by the Academy of Finland under Grants 308791 and 320123. M. J. R. M. was supported in part under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-SC0011095 and National Science Foundation of China Grant No. 19Z103010239. We are grateful for computational resources provided by the University of Helsinki clusters (urn:nbn:fi:research-infras-2016072533). D. J. W. (ORCID ID 0000-0001-6986-0517) was supported by a Science and Technology Facilities Council Ernest Rutherford Fellowship, Grant No. ST/R003904/1, by the Academy of Finland, Grants No. 324882 and No. 328958, and by the Research Funds of the University of Helsinki.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Jenny and Antti Wihuri FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)200020B-188712
Academy of Finland308791
Academy of Finland320123
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0011095
National Natural Science Foundation of China19Z103010239
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/R003904/1
Academy of Finland328958
Academy of Finland324882
University of HelsinkiUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:17
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210429-144553024
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108880
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:29 Apr 2021 23:24
Last Modified:29 Apr 2021 23:24

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