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Completed SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications from two decades of spectroscopic surveys at the Apache Point Observatory

Alam, Shadab and Aubert, Marie and Avila, Santiago and Balland, Christophe and Bautista, Julian E. and Bershady, Matthew A. and Bizyaev, Dmitry and Blanton, Michael R. and Bolton, Adam S. and Bovy, Jo and Brinkmann, Jonathan and Brownstein, Joel R. and Burtin, Etienne and Chabanier, Solène and Chapman, Michael J. and Choi, Peter Doohyun and Chuang, Chia-Hsun and Comparat, Johan and Cousinou, Marie-Claude and Cuceu, Andrei and Dawson, Kyle S. and de la Torre, Sylvain and de Mattia, Arnaud and Agathe, Victoria de Sainte and des Bourboux, Hélion du Mas and Escoffier, Stephanie and Etourneau, Thomas and Farr, James and Font-Ribera, Andreu and Frinchaboy, Peter M. and Fromenteau, Sebastien and Gil-Marín, Héctor and Le Goff, Jean-Marc and Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X. and Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta and Grabowski, Kathleen and Guy, Julien and Hawken, Adam J. and Hou, Jiamin and Kong, Hui and Parker, James and Klaene, Mark and Kneib, Jean-Paul and Lin, Sicheng and Long, Daniel and Lyke, Brad W. and de la Macorra, Axel and Martini, Paul and Masters, Karen and Mohammad, Faizan G. and Moon, Jeongin and Mueller, Eva-Maria and Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Andrea and Myers, Adam D. and Nadathur, Seshadri and Neveux, Richard and Newman, Jeffrey A. and Noterdaeme, Pasquier and Oravetz, Audrey and Oravetz, Daniel and Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie and Pan, Kaike and Paviot, Romain and Percival, Will J. and Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi and Petitjean, Patrick and Pieri, Matthew M. and Prakash, Abhishek and Raichoor, Anand and Ravoux, Corentin and Rezaie, Mehdi and Rich, James and Ross, Ashley J. and Rossi, Graziano and Ruggeri, Rossana and Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina and Sánchez, Ariel G. and Sánchez, F. Javier and Sánchez-Gallego, José R. and Sayres, Conor and Schneider, Donald P. and Seo, Hee-Jong and Shafieloo, Arman and Slosar, Anže and Smith, Alex and Stermer, Julianna and Tamone, Amelie and Tinker, Jeremy L. and Tojeiro, Rita and Vargas-Magaña, Mariana and Variu, Andrei and Wang, Yuting and Weaver, Benjamin A. and Weijmans, Anne-Marie and Yèche, Christophe and Zarrouk, Pauline and Zhao, Cheng and Zhao, Gong-Bo and Zheng, Zheng (2021) Completed SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications from two decades of spectroscopic surveys at the Apache Point Observatory. Physical Review D, 103 (8). Art. No. 083533. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/physrevd.103.083533.

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We present the cosmological implications from final measurements of clustering using galaxies, quasars, and Lyα forests from the completed Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) lineage of experiments in large-scale structure. These experiments, composed of data from SDSS, SDSS-II, BOSS, and eBOSS, offer independent measurements of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements of angular-diameter distances and Hubble distances relative to the sound horizon, r_d, from eight different samples and six measurements of the growth rate parameter, fσ₈, from redshift-space distortions (RSD). This composite sample is the most constraining of its kind and allows us to perform a comprehensive assessment of the cosmological model after two decades of dedicated spectroscopic observation. We show that the BAO data alone are able to rule out dark-energy-free models at more than eight standard deviations in an extension to the flat, ΛCDM model that allows for curvature. When combined with Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) measurements of temperature and polarization, under the same model, the BAO data provide nearly an order of magnitude improvement on curvature constraints relative to primary CMB constraints alone. Independent of distance measurements, the SDSS RSD data complement weak lensing measurements from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) in demonstrating a preference for a flat ΛCDM cosmological model when combined with Planck measurements. The combined BAO and RSD measurements indicate σ₈ = 0.85±0.03, implying a growth rate that is consistent with predictions from Planck temperature and polarization data and with General Relativity. When combining the results of SDSS BAO and RSD, Planck, Pantheon Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), and DES weak lensing and clustering measurements, all multiple-parameter extensions remain consistent with a ΛCDM model. Regardless of cosmological model, the precision on each of the three parameters, Ω_Λ, H₀, and σ₈, remains at roughly 1%, showing changes of less than 0.6% in the central values between models. In a model that allows for free curvature and a time-evolving equation of state for dark energy, the combined samples produce a constraint Ω_k = −0.0022±0.0022. The dark energy constraints lead to w₀ = −0.909±0.081 and w_a = −0.49+0.35−0.30, corresponding to an equation of state of w_p = −1.018±0.032 at a pivot redshift z_p = 0.29 and a Dark Energy Task Force Figure of Merit of 94. The inverse distance ladder measurement under this model yields H₀ = 68.18±0.79  km s⁻¹ Mpc⁻¹, remaining in tension with several direct determination methods; the BAO data allow Hubble constant estimates that are robust against the assumption of the cosmological model. In addition, the BAO data allow estimates of H₀ that are independent of the CMB data, with similar central values and precision under a ΛCDM model. Our most constraining combination of data gives the upper limit on the sum of neutrino masses at ∑m_ν < 0.115  eV (95% confidence). Finally, we consider the improvements in cosmology constraints over the last decade by comparing our results to a sample representative of the period 2000–2010. We compute the relative gain across the five dimensions spanned by w, Ω_k, ∑m_ν, H₀, and σ₈ and find that the SDSS BAO and RSD data reduce the total posterior volume by a factor of 40 relative to the previous generation. Adding again the Planck, DES, and Pantheon SN Ia samples leads to an overall contraction in the five-dimensional posterior volume of 3 orders of magnitude.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Dawson, Kyle S.0000-0002-0553-3805
Prakash, Abhishek0000-0003-4451-4444
Additional Information:© 2021 American Physical Society. Received 22 July 2020; accepted 16 March 2021; published 28 April 2021. This paper represents an effort by both the SDSS-III and SDSS-IV collaborations. Funding for SDSS-III was provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS website is SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, the Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)/University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatory of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:8
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210505-083251536
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108974
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:05 May 2021 18:54
Last Modified:05 May 2021 18:54

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