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The Polarized Image of a Synchrotron-emitting Ring of Gas Orbiting a Black Hole

Narayan, Ramesh and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Johnson, Michael D. and Gelles, Zachary and Himwich, Elizabeth and Chang, Dominic O. and Ricarte, Angelo and Dexter, Jason and Gammie, Charles F. and Chael, Andrew A. and Akiyama, Kazunori and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Algaba, Juan Carlos and Anantua, Richard and Asada, Keiichi and Azulay, Rebecca and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Ball, David and Baloković, Mislav and Barrett, John and Benson, Bradford A. and Bintley, Dan and Blackburn, Lindy and Blundell, Raymond and Boland, Wilfred and Bouman, Katherine L. and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Boyce, Hope and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broderick, Avery E. and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chan, Chi-kwan and Chatterjee, Shami and Chatterjee, Koushik and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Chesler, Paul M. and Cho, Ilje and Christian, Pierre and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crawford, Thomas M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro and Cui, Yuzhu and Davelaar, Jordy and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Eatough, Ralph P. and Falcke, Heino and Farah, Joseph and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Ford, H. Alyson and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Fuentes, Antonio and Galison, Peter and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Georgiev, Boris and Goddi, Ciriaco and Gold, Roman and Gómez, José L. and Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I. and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hada, Kazuhiro and Haggard, Daryl and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Ikeda, Shiro and Inoue, Makoto and Issaoun, Sara and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Janssen, Michael and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra and Jorstad, Svetlana and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Dong-Jin and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Jongsoo and Kim, Junhan and Kino, Motoki and Koay, Jun Yi and Kofuji, Yutaro and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lauer, Tod R. and Lee, Sang-Sung and Levis, Aviad and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Lico, Rocco and Lindahl, Greg and Liu, Jun and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Loinard, Laurent and Lonsdale, Colin and Lu, Ru-Sen and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mao, Jirong and Marchili, Nicola and Markoff, Sera and Marrone, Daniel P. and Marscher, Alan P. and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Matsushita, Satoki and Matthews, Lynn D. and Medeiros, Lia and Menten, Karl M. and Mizuno, Izumi and Mizuno, Yosuke and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Müller, Cornelia and Musoke, Gibwa and Mejías, Alejandro Mus and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Nathanail, Antonios and Neilsen, Joey and Neri, Roberto and Ni, Chunchong and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Nowak, Michael A. and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Ortiz-León, Gisela N. and Oyama, Tomoaki and Özel, Feryal and Park, Jongho and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Pesce, Dominic W. and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Pötzl, Felix M. and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Psaltis, Dimitrios and Pu, Hung-Yi and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Ros, Eduardo and Rose, Mel and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruszczyk, Chet and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sasada, Mahito and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Sun, He and Tazaki, Fumie and Tetarenko, Alexandra J. and Tiede, Paul and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Toma, Kenji and Torne, Pablo and Trent, Tyler and Traianou, Efthalia and Trippe, Sascha and van Bemmel, Ilse and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Wagner, Jan and Ward-Thompson, Derek and Wardle, John and Weintroub, Jonathan and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wielgus, Maciek and Wong, George N. and Wu, Qingwen and Yoon, Doosoo and Young, André and Young, Ken and Younsi, Ziri and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zensus, J. Anton and Zhao, Guang-Yao and Zhao, Shan-Shan (2021) The Polarized Image of a Synchrotron-emitting Ring of Gas Orbiting a Black Hole. Astrophysical Journal, 912 (1). Art. No. 35. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abf117. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210512-133332471

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Abstract

Synchrotron radiation from hot gas near a black hole results in a polarized image. The image polarization is determined by effects including the orientation of the magnetic field in the emitting region, relativistic motion of the gas, strong gravitational lensing by the black hole, and parallel transport in the curved spacetime. We explore these effects using a simple model of an axisymmetric, equatorial accretion disk around a Schwarzschild black hole. By using an approximate expression for the null geodesics derived by Beloborodov and conservation of the Walker–Penrose constant, we provide analytic estimates for the image polarization. We test this model using currently favored general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of M87*, using ring parameters given by the simulations. For a subset of these with modest Faraday effects, we show that the ring model broadly reproduces the polarimetric image morphology. Our model also predicts the polarization evolution for compact flaring regions, such as those observed from Sgr A* with GRAVITY. With suitably chosen parameters, our simple model can reproduce the EVPA pattern and relative polarized intensity in Event Horizon Telescope images of M87*. Under the physically motivated assumption that the magnetic field trails the fluid velocity, this comparison is consistent with the clockwise rotation inferred from total intensity images.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abf117DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.01804arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Narayan, Ramesh0000-0002-1919-2730
Palumbo, Daniel C. M.0000-0002-7179-3816
Johnson, Michael D.0000-0002-4120-3029
Gelles, Zachary0000-0001-8053-4392
Ricarte, Angelo0000-0001-5287-0452
Dexter, Jason0000-0003-3903-0373
Gammie, Charles F.0000-0001-7451-8935
Chael, Andrew A.0000-0003-2966-6220
Akiyama, Kazunori0000-0002-9475-4254
Algaba, Juan Carlos0000-0001-6993-1696
Anantua, Richard0000-0003-3457-7660
Baloković, Mislav0000-0003-0476-6647
Blackburn, Lindy0000-0002-9030-642X
Bouman, Katherine L.0000-0003-0077-4367
Bower, Geoffrey C.0000-0003-4056-9982
Boyce, Hope0000-0002-6530-5783
Broderick, Avery E.0000-0002-3351-760X
Bronzwaer, Thomas0000-0003-1151-3971
Byun, Do-Young0000-0003-1157-4109
Chan, Chi-kwan0000-0001-6337-6126
Chatterjee, Shami0000-0002-2878-1502
Cho, Ilje0000-0001-6083-7521
Christian, Pierre0000-0001-6820-9941
Cordes, James M.0000-0002-4049-1882
Davelaar, Jordy0000-0002-2685-2434
Desvignes, Gregory0000-0003-3922-4055
Falcke, Heino0000-0002-2526-6724
Farah, Joseph0000-0003-4914-5625
Fish, Vincent L.0000-0002-7128-9345
Fomalont, Ed0000-0002-9036-2747
Friberg, Per0000-0002-8010-8454
Fuentes, Antonio0000-0002-8773-4933
García, Roberto0000-0002-6584-7443
Goddi, Ciriaco0000-0002-2542-7743
Gómez, José L.0000-0003-4190-7613
Gurwell, Mark0000-0003-0685-3621
Hada, Kazuhiro0000-0001-6906-772X
Haggard, Daryl0000-0001-6803-2138
Honma, Mareki0000-0003-4058-9000
Ikeda, Shiro0000-0002-2462-1448
Issaoun, Sara0000-0002-5297-921X
Jeter, Britton0000-0003-2847-1712
Jorstad, Svetlana0000-0001-6158-1708
Karami, Mansour0000-0001-7387-9333
Kawashima, Tomohisa0000-0001-8527-0496
Keating, Garrett K.0000-0002-3490-146X
Kim, Jae-Young0000-0001-8229-7183
Kim, Jongsoo0000-0002-1229-0426
Kim, Junhan0000-0002-4274-9373
Kino, Motoki0000-0002-2709-7338
Koch, Patrick M.0000-0003-2777-5861
Koyama, Shoko0000-0002-3723-3372
Kramer, Michael0000-0002-4175-2271
Krichbaum, Thomas P.0000-0002-4892-9586
Kuo, Cheng-Yu0000-0001-6211-5581
Lauer, Tod R.0000-0003-3234-7247
Lee, Sang-Sung0000-0002-6269-594X
Levis, Aviad0000-0001-7307-632X
Liu, Kuo0000-0002-2953-7376
Loinard, Laurent0000-0002-5635-3345
Lu, Ru-Sen0000-0002-7692-7967
Markoff, Sera0000-0001-9564-0876
Marrone, Daniel P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Marscher, Alan P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Martí-Vidal, Iván0000-0003-3708-9611
Matsushita, Satoki0000-0002-2127-7880
Medeiros, Lia0000-0003-2342-6728
Mizuno, Yosuke0000-0002-8131-6730
Moriyama, Kotaro0000-0003-1364-3761
Nagai, Hiroshi0000-0003-0292-3645
Nakamura, Masanori0000-0001-6081-2420
Neilsen, Joey0000-0002-8247-786X
Neri, Roberto0000-0002-7176-4046
Nowak, Michael A.0000-0001-6923-1315
Ortiz-León, Gisela N.0000-0002-2863-676X
Park, Jongho0000-0001-6558-9053
Pen, Ue-Li0000-0003-2155-9578
Pesce, Dominic W.0000-0002-5278-9221
Plambeck, Richard0000-0001-6765-9609
Porth, Oliver0000-0002-4584-2557
Psaltis, Dimitrios0000-0003-4058-2837
Pu, Hung-Yi0000-0001-9270-8812
Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh0000-0002-9248-086X
Rao, Ramprasad0000-0002-1407-7944
Rawlings, Mark G.0000-0002-6529-202X
Rezzolla, Luciano0000-0002-1330-7103
Ripperda, Bart0000-0002-7301-3908
Roelofs, Freek0000-0001-5461-3687
Ros, Eduardo0000-0001-9503-4892
Sánchez-Arguelles, David0000-0002-7344-9920
Sasada, Mahito0000-0001-5946-9960
Savolainen, Tuomas0000-0001-6214-1085
Schuster, Karl-Friedrich0000-0003-2890-9454
Shao, Lijing0000-0002-1334-8853
Sohn, Bong Won0000-0002-4148-8378
Sun, He0000-0003-1526-6787
Tiede, Paul0000-0003-3826-5648
Toma, Kenji0000-0002-7114-6010
Trippe, Sascha0000-0003-0465-1559
van Rossum, Daniel R.0000-0001-7772-6131
Wagner, Jan0000-0003-1105-6109
Ward-Thompson, Derek0000-0003-1140-2761
Wharton, Robert0000-0002-7416-5209
Wielgus, Maciek0000-0002-8635-4242
Wong, George N.0000-0001-6952-2147
Yoon, Doosoo0000-0001-8694-8166
Zhao, Guang-Yao0000-0002-4417-1659
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 January 31; revised 2021 March 18; accepted 2021 March 21; published 2021 May 3. We thank the National Science Foundation (awards OISE-1743747, AST-1816420, AST-1716536, AST-1440254, AST-1935980) and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF-5278) for financial support of this work. This work was supported in part by the black hole Initiative, which is funded by grants from the John Templeton Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to Harvard University. Support for this work was also provided by the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51431.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration thanks the following organizations and programs: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496, 315721); the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID), Chile via NCN19_058 (TITANs) and Fondecyt 3190878, the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship; Allegro, the European ALMA Regional Centre node in the Netherlands, the NL astronomy research network NOVA and the astronomy institutes of the University of Amsterdam, Leiden University and Radboud University; the black hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, projects U0004-246083, U0004-259839, F0003-272050, M0037-279006, F0003-281692, 104497, 275201, 263356); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico—Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA—UNAM, projects IN112417 and IN112820); the European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" (grant 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177 and GenT Program (project CIDEGENT/2018/021); MICINN Research Project PID2019-108995GB-C22; the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grant GBMF-3561; the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; Joint Princeton/Flatiron and Joint Columbia/Flatiron Postdoctoral Fellowships, research at the Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation; the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829 and JP19H01943); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJSSW- SYS008, ZDBS-LY-SLH011); the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007); the Malaysian Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) FRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6; the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119- M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020,107-2119-M-110-005, 108-2112-M-001-048, and 109-2124-M-001-005); the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA grant NNX17AL82G, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC20K1567, NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant 80NSSC20K0527, NASA NuSTAR award 80NSSC20K0645); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST-1555365, AST-1615796, AST-1715061, AST-1716327, AST-1903847, AST-2034306); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11933007, 11991052, 11991053); a fellowship of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M671266); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015- R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561, Basic Research Support Grant 2019R1F1A1059721); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Innovation (DSI) of South Africa; the South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Innovation and National Research Foundation; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grants PGC2018-098915-B-C21, AYA2016-80889-P, PID2019-108995GB-C21); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucía (grant P18-FR-1769), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (grant 2019AEP112); the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE (Contract 89233218CNA000001); the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra DD7-18089X and TM6-17006X; the GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project CIDEGENT/2018/021. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TG-AST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Compute Ontario (http://computeontario.ca), Calcul Quebec (http://www.calculquebec.ca) and Compute Canada (http://www.computecanada.ca). We thank the staff at the participating observatories, correlation centers, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01154.V. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO; Europe, representing its member states), NSF, and National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, together with National Research Council (Canada), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST; Taiwan), Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA; Taiwan), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI; Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)/NRAO, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany), ESO, and the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden). The SMA is a joint project between the SAO and ASIAA and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The JCMT is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of the NAOJ, ASIAA, and KASI, as well as the Ministry of Finance of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFA0402700) of China. Additional funding support for the JCMT is provided by the Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) and participating universities in the UK and Canada. The LMT is a project operated by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica, y Electrónica (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (USA), with financial support from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología and the National Science Foundation. The IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain is operated by IRAM and supported by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), MPG (Max-Planck- Gesellschaft, Germany) and IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Spain). The SMT is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory, a part of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona, with financial support of operations from the State of Arizona and financial support for instrumentation development from the NSF. The SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR- 1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. The SPT hydrogen maser was provided on loan from the GLT, courtesy of ASIAA. The EHTC has received generous donations of FPGA chips from Xilinx Inc., under the Xilinx University Program. The EHTC has benefited from technology shared under open-source license by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The EHT project is grateful to T4Science and Microsemi for their assistance with Hydrogen Masers. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System. We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the extended staff of the ALMA, both from the inception of the ALMA Phasing Project through the observational campaigns of 2017 and 2018. We would like to thank A. Deller and W. Brisken for EHT-specific support with the use of DiFX. We acknowledge the significance that Maunakea, where the SMA and JCMT EHT stations are located, has for the indigenous Hawaiian people.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFOISE-1743747
NSFAST-1816420
NSFAST-1716536
NSFAST-1440254
NSFAST-1935980
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-5278
John Templeton Foundation60477
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51431.001-A
NASANAS5-26555
Academy of Finland274477
Academy of Finland284495
Academy of Finland312496
Academy of Finland315721
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)NCN19_058
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)3190878
Alexander von Humboldt StiftungUNSPECIFIED
AllegroUNSPECIFIED
ALMA Regional CentreUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA)UNSPECIFIED
University of AmsterdamUNSPECIFIED
Leiden UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Radboud UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)U0004-246083
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)U0004-259839
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)F0003-272050
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)M0037-279006
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)F0003-281692
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)104497
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)275201
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)263356
Delaney Family John A. Wheeler ChairUNSPECIFIED
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112417
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112820
European Research Council (ERC)610058
Generalitat ValencianaAPOSTD/2018/177
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-108995GB-C22
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-3561
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Flatiron InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Columbia UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17J08829
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19H01943
Key Research Program of Frontier SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SLH057
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJSSW-SYS008
Chinese Academy of SciencesZDBS-LY-SLH011
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18KK0090
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03656
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18K03709
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)25120007
Malaysian Fundamental Research GrantFRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-001-025-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-001-011
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2119-M-001-027
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-017
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-020
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-110-005
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2112-M-001-048
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)109-2124-M-001-005
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National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
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Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1A2A1033752
National Research Foundation of Korea2015-R1D1A1A01056807
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1D3A1066561
National Research Foundation of Korea2019R1F1A1059721
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
Spinoza PrizeSPI 78-409
South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Innovation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2017-00648
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Province of Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and ScienceUNSPECIFIED
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Subject Keywords:Accretion; Black holes; Polarimetry; Magnetic fields
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Accretion (14); Black holes (162); Polarimetry (1278); Magnetic fields (994)
DOI:10.3847/1538-4357/abf117
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210512-133332471
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210512-133332471
Official Citation:Ramesh Narayan et al 2021 ApJ 912 35
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109105
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:13 May 2021 16:24
Last Modified:13 May 2021 16:24

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