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The very forward CASTOR calorimeter of the CMS experiment

Khachatryan, V. and Anderson, D. and Bornheim, A. and Cerri, O. and Dutta, I. and Lawhorn, J. M. and Lu, N. and Mao, J. and Newman, H. B. and Nguyen, T. Q. and Pata, J. and Spiropulu, M. and Vlimant, J. R. and Xie, S. and Zhang, Z. and Zhu, R. Y. and Dubinin, M. and Peña, C. (2021) The very forward CASTOR calorimeter of the CMS experiment. Journal of Instrumentation, 16 (2). Art. No. P02010. ISSN 1748-0221. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/16/02/P02010. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210513-070213428

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Abstract

The physics motivation, detector design, triggers, calibration, alignment, simulation, and overall performance of the very forward CASTOR calorimeter of the CMS experiment are reviewed. The CASTOR Cherenkov sampling calorimeter is located very close to the LHC beam line, at a radial distance of about 1cm from the beam pipe, and at 14.4m from the CMS interaction point, covering the pseudorapidity range of −6.6 < η < −5.2. It was designed to withstand high ambient radiation and strong magnetic fields. The performance of the detector in measurements of forward energy density, jets, and processes characterized by rapidity gaps, is reviewed using data collected in proton and nuclear collisions at the LHC.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/16/02/P02010DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.01185arXivDiscussion Paper
http://cms-results.web.cern.ch/cms-results/public-results/publications/PRF-18-002Related ItemFigures and Tables
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Anderson, D.0000-0001-8173-3182
Bornheim, A.0000-0002-0128-0871
Cerri, O.0000-0002-2191-0666
Lawhorn, J. M.0000-0002-8597-9259
Newman, H. B.0000-0003-0964-1480
Nguyen, T. Q.0000-0003-3954-5131
Spiropulu, M.0000-0001-8172-7081
Vlimant, J. R.0000-0002-9705-101X
Xie, S.0000-0003-2509-5731
Zhang, Z.0000-0002-1630-0986
Zhu, R. Y.0000-0003-3091-7461
Dubinin, M.0000-0002-7766-7175
Peña, C.0000-0002-4500-7930
Additional Information:© 2021 CERN for the benefit of the CMS collaboration. Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of Sissa Medialab. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received: November 2, 2020; Accepted: November 26, 2020; Published: February 8, 2021. We congratulate our colleagues in the CERN accelerator departments for the excellent performance of the LHC and thank the technical and administrative staffs at CERN and at other CMS institutes for their contributions to the success of the CMS effort. In addition, we gratefully acknowledge the computing centers and personnel of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for delivering so effectively the computing infrastructure essential to our analyses. Moreover, the CASTOR detector project received important support and explicit funding from the Helmholtz Association (Germany) via grants HN-NG-733 and the joint Helmholtz-Russian grant HRJRG-002, as well from the “A. G. Leventis” Foundation (Greece). We are also grateful to our Colleagues from the TOTEM Collaboration for the combined data taking and the fantastic work on the T2+CASTOR combined data analysis. Finally, we acknowledge the enduring support for the construction and operation of the LHC and the CMS detector provided by the following funding agencies: the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research and the Austrian Science Fund; the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique, and Fonds voor Wetenschappel.k Onderzoek; the Brazilian Funding Agencies (CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ, FAPERGS, and FAPESP); the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science; CERN; the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Science and Technology, and National Natural Science Foundation of China; the Colombian Funding Agency (COLCIENCIAS); the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sport, and the Croatian Science Foundation; the Research and Innovation Foundation, Cyprus; the Secretariat for Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation, Ecuador; the Ministry of Education and Research, Estonian Research Council via PRG780, PRG803 and PRG445 and EuropeanRegional Development Fund, Estonia; the Academy of Finland, Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, and Helsinki Institute of Physics; the Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules / CNRS, and Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives / CEA, France; the Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy—EXC 2121 “Quantum Universe”—390833306, and Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren, Germany; the General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Greece; the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund, Hungary; the Department of Atomic Energy and the Department of Science and Technology, India; the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Iran; the Science Foundation, Ireland; the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy; the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, and National Research Foundation (NRF), Republic of Korea; the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Latvia; the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences; the Ministry of Education, and University of Malaya (Malaysia); the Ministry of Science of Montenegro; the Mexican Funding Agencies (BUAP, CINVESTAV, CONACYT, LNS, SEP, and UASLP-FAI); the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, New Zealand; the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education and the National Science Centre, Poland; the Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, Portugal; JINR, Dubna; the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the Federal Agency of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation, Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, and the National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”; the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia; the Secretaria de Estado de Investigacion, Desarrollo e Innovacion, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010, Plan Estatal de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnica y de Innovacion 2017–2020, research project IDI-2018-000174 del Principado de Asturias, and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, Spain; the Ministry of Science, Technology and Research, Sri Lanka; the Swiss Funding Agencies (ETH Board, ETH Zurich, PSI, SNF, UniZH, Canton Zurich, and SER); the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taipei; the Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology of Thailand, Special Task Force for Activating Research and the National Science and Technology Development Agency of Thailand; the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, and Turkish Atomic Energy Authority; the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; the Science and Technology Facilities Council, U.K.; the US Department of Energy, and the US National Science Foundation. Individuals have received support from the Marie-Curie program and the European Research Council and Horizon 2020 Grant, contract Nos. 675440, 724704, 752730, and 765710 (European Union); the Leventis Foundation; the A.P. Sloan Foundation; the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation; the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office; the Fonds pour la Formation a la Recherche dans l’Industrie et dans l’Agriculture (FRIA-Belgium); the Agentschap voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie (IWT-Belgium); the F.R.S.-FNRS and FWO (Belgium) under the “Excellence of Science—EOS”—be.h project n. 30820817; the Bejing Municipal Science & Technology Commission, No. Z191100007219010; the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MEYS) of the Czech Republic; the Lendulet (“Momentum”) Program and the Janos Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the New National Excellence Program UNKP, the NKFIA research grants 123842, 123959, 124845, 124850, 125105, 128713, 128786, and 129058 (Hungary); the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India; the HOMING PLUS program of the Foundation for Polish Science, cofinanced from European Union, Regional Development Fund, the Mobility Plus program of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the National Science Center (Poland), contracts Harmonia 2014/14/M/ST2/00428, Opus 2014/13/B/ST2/02543, 2014/15/B/ST2/03998, and 2015/19/B/ST2/02861, Sonata-bis 2012/07/E/ST2/01406; the National Priorities Research Program by Qatar National Research Fund; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, project no. 02.a03.21.0005 (Russia); the Tomsk Polytechnic University Competitiveness Enhancement Program; the Programa de Excelencia Maria de Maeztu, and the Programa Severo Ochoa del Principado de Asturias; the Thalis and Aristeia programs cofinanced by EU-ESF, and the Greek NSRF; the Rachadapisek Sompot Fund for Postdoctoral Fellowship, Chulalongkorn University, and the Chulalongkorn Academic into Its 2nd Century Project Advancement Project (Thailand); the Kavli Foundation; the Nvidia Corporation; the SuperMicro Corporation; the Welch Foundation, contract C-1845; and the Weston Havens Foundation (U.S.A.).
Group:CMS@Caltech
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Helmholtz AssociationHN-NG-733
Helmholtz AssociationHRJRG-002
Leventis FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung Und Wirtschaft (BMWFW)UNSPECIFIED
FWF Der WissenschaftsfondUNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)UNSPECIFIED
CERNUNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (China)UNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (COLCIENCIAS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science, Education and Sport (Croatia)UNSPECIFIED
Croatian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Research Promotion Foundation (Cyprus)UNSPECIFIED
Secretaría Nacional de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENESCYT)UNSPECIFIED
Estonian Research CouncilPRG780
Estonian Research CouncilPRG803
Estonian Research CouncilPRG445
European Regional Development Fund (Estonia)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Culture (Finland)UNSPECIFIED
Helsinki Institute of PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)EXC 2121
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)390833306
Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF)UNSPECIFIED
General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT)UNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Atomic Energy (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (Iran)UNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Korea)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science (Latvia)UNSPECIFIED
Lithuanian Academy of SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education (Malaysia)UNSPECIFIED
University of MalayaUNSPECIFIED
Ministero della Scienza del Montenegro (MOS)UNSPECIFIED
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP)UNSPECIFIED
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)UNSPECIFIED
Laboratorio Nacional de Supercómputo (LNS)UNSPECIFIED
Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP)UNSPECIFIED
Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí Inicio-Facultad de Ingeniería (UASLP-FAI)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (New Zealand)UNSPECIFIED
Atomic Energy Commission (Pakistan)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Ministry of Education and Sciences (MON)UNSPECIFIED
RosAtomUNSPECIFIED
Russian Academy of SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
National Research Center, Kurchatov Institute (Russia)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)UNSPECIFIED
Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación (SEIDI)UNSPECIFIED
Centro Nacional de Física de Partículas, Astropartículas y Nuclear (CPAN)UNSPECIFIED
Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de InnovaciónIDI-2018-000174
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science, Technology and Research (Sri Lanka)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss Funding AgenciesUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Thailand Center of Excellence in PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (Thailand)UNSPECIFIED
Special Task Force for Activating Research (Thailand)UNSPECIFIED
National Science and Technology Development Agency (Thailand)UNSPECIFIED
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)UNSPECIFIED
Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu (TAEK)UNSPECIFIED
National Academy of Sciences (Ukraine)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)675440
European Research Council (ERC)724704
European Research Council (ERC)752730
European Research Council (ERC)765710
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture (FRIA-Belgium)UNSPECIFIED
Agentschap voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie (IWT-Belgium)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)30820817
Beijing Municipal Science & Technology CommissionZ191100007219010
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic)UNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Academy of SciencesUNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)123842
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)123959
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)124845
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)124850
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)125105
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)128713
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)128786
National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (NKFIA)129058
Council of Science and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Foundation for Polish Science HOMING PLUS ProgramUNSPECIFIED
European Union Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Mobility Plus ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Harmonia Program2014/14/M/ST2/00428
OPUS Program2014/13/B/ST2/02543
OPUS Program2014/15/B/ST2/03998
OPUS Program2015/19/B/ST2/02861
Sonata-bis Program2012/07/E/ST2/01406
Qatar National Research Fund National Priorities Research ProgramUNSPECIFIED
National Research Nuclear University02.a03.21.0005
Tomsk Polytechnic UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia María de MaeztuUNSPECIFIED
Programa Severo Ochoa del Principado de AsturiasUNSPECIFIED
Thalis ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Aristeia ProgramUNSPECIFIED
European Social FundUNSPECIFIED
Greek National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF)UNSPECIFIED
Rachadapisek Sompot Fund, Chulalongkorn UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Chulalongkorn Academic into Its 2nd Century Project Advancement Project (Thailand)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Nvidia CorporationUNSPECIFIED
SuperMicro CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Robert A. Welch FoundationC-1845
Weston Havens FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Calorimeters; Cherenkov detectors; Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics
Issue or Number:2
DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/16/02/P02010
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210513-070213428
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210513-070213428
Official Citation:The very forward CASTOR calorimeter of the CMS experiment. The CMS collaboration 2021 JINST 16 P02010; DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/16/02/P02010
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109106
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:13 May 2021 16:16
Last Modified:13 May 2021 16:16

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