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Controls of aeolian dune height on cross-strata architecture: White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, U.S.A.

Zhao, Feifei and Cardenas, Benjamin T. and Kim, Wonsuck (2021) Controls of aeolian dune height on cross-strata architecture: White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, U.S.A. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 91 (5). pp. 495-506. ISSN 1527-1404. doi:10.2110/jsr.2020.138. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210518-094512701

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Abstract

The stratal types composing aeolian dunes preserve a record of the transport and sorting of grains and are categorized into: 1) grainflow strata, 2) grainfall laminae, and 3) wind-ripple laminae. The arrangement of these deposits in the cross beds of a formative dune is largely unexplored. Here, field results from White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, USA, are used to test the hypothesis that dune height controls the arrangement, abundance, and geometry of cross-stratification types. Grainflow thicknesses and deposit widths were measured on wind-scoured stoss-side exposures of seven crescentic dunes with heights ranging from 1.7 m to 11.2 m. Dozens of grainflow thickness measurements were taken along transverse-oriented strata normal to the crest on each dune. The results show that grainflow thickness averages from 1 cm to 4 cm. These data show a positive trend between mean grainflow thickness and dune height but only for the grainflow thicknesses measured at the bases of dunes. The tallest dune (11.2 m) produced many thick grainflow packages of 10 cm to 30 cm in which individual grainflow strata were indistinguishable from each other. This amalgamation was also found to be characteristic of larger dunes—the product of a lack of grainfall deposits separating individual grainflows. These differences in grainflow strata at the bases of dune lee slopes are linked to the temporary storage of sediment along the upper parts of lee slopes. In taller dunes with longer lee slopes, amalgamated grainflows which require multiple avalanche events and take longer time to reach the base transport temporarily stored sediment at upper parts of the slope. This allows time for wind ripples to rework accumulations near the base, where grainfall deposition is also limited. Shorter dunes lack this temporary storage mechanism, as individual grainflows can move across the entire lee slope in a single event, and grainfall accumulates across the entire lee slope. These stratigraphic measurements and process-based understanding will be useful in estimating original dune height in ancient cross-strata and will lead to a better interpretation of aeolian stratigraphy.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2020.138DOIArticle
https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/sepm/jsedres/article/91/5/495/598239/Controls-of-aeolian-dune-height-on-cross-strataPublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Cardenas, Benjamin T.0000-0001-7246-219X
Additional Information:© 2021 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology). Received 25 August 2020; accepted 24 February 2021. We thank Hima Hassenruck-Gudipati, Eric Prokocki, and David Mohrig, members in the Mohrig and Kim research groups, and Mackenzie Day and an anonymous reviewer for their constructive feedback and insights. We also thank David Bustos at White Sands Dune Field for helping with permits and access. Field work was funded by the Undergraduate Research Fellowship from the University of Texas at Austin and the Amos Stratigraphy Fellowship from Dr. Sharon Mosher. This work was partly supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2020R1A2C1006083 and NRF-2017R1A6A1A07015374). This work is also based on the 2010 White Sands LiDAR survey dataset from the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping services provided by the Open-Topography Facility with support from the National Science Foundation under NSF Award Numbers 1948997, 1948994, and 1948857.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
University of Texas at AustinUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2020R1A2C1006083
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2017R1A6A1A07015374
NSFEAR-1948997
NSFEAR-1948994
NSFEAR-1948857
Issue or Number:5
DOI:10.2110/jsr.2020.138
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210518-094512701
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210518-094512701
Official Citation:Feifei Zhao, Benjamin T. Cardenas, Wonsuck Kim; Controls of aeolian dune height on cross-strata architecture: White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, U.S.A.. Journal of Sedimentary Research 2021; 91 (5): 495–506. doi: https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2020.138
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109172
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 May 2021 18:33
Last Modified:19 May 2021 18:33

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