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Post-2018 Caldera Collapse Re-Inflation Uniquely Constrains Kīlauea's Magmatic System

Wang, Taiyi and Zheng, Yujie and Pulvirenti, Fabio and Segall, Paul (2021) Post-2018 Caldera Collapse Re-Inflation Uniquely Constrains Kīlauea's Magmatic System. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 126 (6). Art. No. e2021JB021803. ISSN 2169-9313. doi:10.1029/2021jb021803.

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From August 2018 to May 2019, Kīlauea’s summit exhibited unique, simultaneous, inflation and deflation, apparent in both GPS time series and cumulative InSAR displacement maps. This deformation pattern provides clear evidence that the Halema‘uma‘u (HMM) and South Caldera (SC) reservoirs are distinct. Post-collapse inflation of the East Rift Zone (ERZ), as captured by InSAR, indicates concurrent magma transfer from the summit reservoirs to the ERZ. We present a physics-based model that couples pressure-driven flow between these magma reservoirs to simulate time dependent summit deformation. We take a two-step approach to quantitatively constrain Kīlauea’s magmatic plumbing system. First, we jointly invert the InSAR displacement maps and GPS offsets for the location and geometry of the summit reservoirs, approximated as spheroidal chambers. We find that HMM reservoir has an aspect ratio of ∼1.8 (prolate) and a depth of ∼2.2 km (below surface). The SC reservoir has an aspect ratio of ∼0.14 (oblate) and a depth of ∼3.6 km. Second, we utilize the flux model to invert GPS time series from 8 summit stations. Results favor a shallow HMM-ERZ pathway an order of magnitude more hydraulically conductive than the deep SC-ERZ pathway. Further analysis shows that the HMM-ERZ pathway is required to explain the deformation time series. Given high-quality geodetic data, such an approach promises to quantify the connectivity of magmatic pathways between reservoirs in other similar volcanic systems.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemUNAVCO -- GPS data ItemEuropean Space Agency Sentinel 1 InSAR data -- Alaska Satellite Facility's data repository
Wang, Taiyi0000-0002-5933-6866
Zheng, Yujie0000-0001-9013-451X
Pulvirenti, Fabio0000-0002-7676-4758
Segall, Paul0000-0001-5973-471X
Additional Information:© 2021 American Geophysical Union. Issue Online: 24 June 2021; Version of Record online: 24 June 2021; Accepted manuscript online: 19 May 2021; Manuscript accepted: 17 May 2021; Manuscript revised: 29 April 2021; Manuscript received: 29 January 2021. The authors thank the USGS for access to GPS data. Thanks to Dr. Kyle Anderson for helpful discussions related to the post-collapse deformation in the summit region and Prof. Howard Zebker for insights on SBAS time series analysis. The authors are grateful to the constructive comments made by the associate editor and two anonymous reviewers, which greatly improved the manuscript. Data Availability Statement: GPS data are available from the UNAVCO archive ( European Space Agency Sentinel 1 InSAR data are available from Alaska Satellite Facility’s data repository (
Subject Keywords:Caldera collapse; Kīlauea; magma flux; physics based model re-inflation; SBAS
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210524-113359489
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Wang, T., Zheng, Y., Pulvirenti, F., & Segall, P. (2021). Post-2018 caldera collapse re-inflation uniquely constrains Kīlauea's magmatic system. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 126, e2021JB021803.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109243
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:24 May 2021 19:25
Last Modified:01 Dec 2021 08:05

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