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RINGO3 polarimetry of very young ZTF supernovae

Maund, J. R. and Yang, Y. and Steele, I. A. and Baade, D. and Jermak, H. and Schulze, S. and Bruch, R. and Gal-Yam, A. and Höflich, P. A. and Ofek, E. and Wang, X. and Amenouche, M. and Dekany, R. and Masci, F. J. and Riddle, R. and Soumagnac, M. T. (2021) RINGO3 polarimetry of very young ZTF supernovae. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 503 (1). pp. 312-323. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab391.

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The early phases of the observed evolution of the supernovae (SNe) are expected to be dominated by the shock breakout and ‘flash’ ionization of the surrounding circumstellar medium. This material arises from the last stages of the evolution of the progenitor, such that photometry and spectroscopy of SNe at early times can place vital constraints on the latest and fastest evolutionary phases leading up to stellar death. These signatures are erased by the expansion of the ejecta within ∼5 d after explosion. Here we present the earliest constraints, to date, on the polarization of 10 transients discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), between 2018 June and 2019 August. Rapid polarimetric follow-up was conducted using the Liverpool Telescope RINGO3 instrument, including three SNe observed within <1 d of detection by the ZTF. The limits on the polarization within the first 5 d of explosion, for all SN types, is generally <2per cent⁠, implying early asymmetries are limited to axial ratios >0.65 (assuming an oblate spheroidal configuration). We also present polarimetric observations of the Type I Superluminous SN 2018bsz and Type II SN 2018hna, observed around and after maximum light.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemData
Maund, J. R.0000-0003-0733-7215
Steele, I. A.0000-0001-8397-5759
Schulze, S.0000-0001-6797-1889
Bruch, R.0000-0001-8208-2473
Gal-Yam, A.0000-0002-3653-5598
Ofek, E.0000-0002-6786-8774
Dekany, R.0000-0002-5884-7867
Masci, F. J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Riddle, R.0000-0002-0387-370X
Soumagnac, M. T.0000-0001-6753-1488
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2021 February 3. Received 2021 February 1; in original form 2020 October 21. Published: 13 February 2021. The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University at the Spanish Obervatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, with financial support from the UK Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC). Financial support for the development RINGO3 was also provided by the STFC Project Research and Development (PRD) scheme. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. The research of JRM was supported through a Royal Society Research Fellowship. The research of YY is supported through a Benoziyo Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship. The research of AGY is supported by the EU via ERC Grant No. 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as The Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of Science, the Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary Fund, Paul and Tina Gardner, Yeda-Sela and the WIS-CIT joint research grant; AGY is the recipient of the Helen and Martin Kimmel Award for Innovative Investigation. The work of XW is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC grants 11325313, 11633002, and 11761141001), and the National Program on Key Research and Development Project (grant no. 2016YFA0400803). The authors thank S. Van Dyk for useful comments on the manuscript. Data Availability: The observational data presented here is available in the public archive of the Liverpool Telescope (
Group:Zwicky Transient Facility, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Prize Postdoctoral FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Benoziyo Endowment Fund for the Advancement of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Veronika A. Rabl Physics Discretionary FundUNSPECIFIED
Paul and Tina GardnerUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Helen and Martin Kimmel AwardUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China11325313
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633002
National Natural Science Foundation of China11761141001
National Program on Key Research and Development Project2016YFA0400803
Subject Keywords:techniques: polarimetric – supernovae: general
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210601-102838625
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:J R Maund, Y Yang, I A Steele, D Baade, H Jermak, S Schulze, R Bruch, A Gal-Yam, P A Höflich, E Ofek, X Wang, M Amenouche, R Dekany, F J Masci, R Riddle, M T Soumagnac, RINGO3 polarimetry of very young ZTF supernovae, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 503, Issue 1, May 2021, Pages 312–323,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109322
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:01 Jun 2021 18:06
Last Modified:01 Jun 2021 18:06

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