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The case for thermalization as a contributor to the [C II] deficit

Sutter, Jessica and Dale, Daniel A. and Sandstrom, Karin and Smith, J. D. T. and Bolatto, Alberto and Boquien, Médéric and Calzetti, Daniela and Croxall, Kevin V. and De Looze, Ilse and Galametz, Maud and Groves, Brent A. and Helou, George and Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo and Hunt, Leslie K. and Kennicutt, Robert C. and Pelligrini, Eric W. and Wilson, Christine and Wolfire, Mark G. (2021) The case for thermalization as a contributor to the [C II] deficit. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 503 (1). pp. 911-919. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab490.

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The [C II] deficit, which describes the observed decrease in the ratio of [C II] 158 μm emission to continuum infrared emission in galaxies with high star formation surface densities, places a significant challenge to the interpretation of [C II] detections from across the observable universe. In an attempt to further decode the cause of the [C II] deficit, the [C II] and dust continuum emission from 18 Local Volume galaxies has been split based on conditions within the interstellar medium where it originated. This is completed using the Key Insights in Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) and Beyond the Peak (BtP) surveys and the wide-range of wavelength information, from UV to far-infrared emission lines, available for a selection of star-forming regions within these samples. By comparing these subdivided [C II] emissions to isolated infrared emission and other properties, we find that the thermalization (collisional de-excitation) of the [C II] line in H II regions plays a significant role in the deficit observed in our sample.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemData
Sutter, Jessica0000-0002-9183-8102
Dale, Daniel A.0000-0002-5782-9093
Sandstrom, Karin0000-0002-4378-8534
Smith, J. D. T.0000-0003-1545-5078
Bolatto, Alberto0000-0002-5480-5686
Boquien, Médéric0000-0003-0946-6176
Calzetti, Daniela0000-0002-5189-8004
Croxall, Kevin V.0000-0002-5258-7224
Galametz, Maud0000-0002-0283-8689
Helou, George0000-0003-3367-3415
Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo0000-0002-2775-0595
Hunt, Leslie K.0000-0001-9162-2371
Kennicutt, Robert C.0000-0001-5448-1821
Wilson, Christine0000-0001-5817-0991
Wolfire, Mark G.0000-0003-0030-9510
Alternate Title:The Case for Thermalization as a Contributor to the [CII] Deficit
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2021 February 16. Received 2021 February 1; in original form 2020 December 9. Published: 20 February 2021. This work was supported by NASA Headquarters under the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Grant #80NSSC18K1107, as the Wyoming NASA Space Grant Consortium, NASA Grant #NNX15AI08H. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. IRAF, the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility, has been developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatories and the Space Telescope Science Institute. Data Availability: All data are available through IRSA through the KINGFISH database at with the exception of the SPIRE spectroscopy, which is available upon request.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship80NSSC18K1107
Wyoming NASA Space Grant ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:(ISM:) HII Regions – (ISM:) photodissociation regions – galaxies: ISM
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210602-100900704
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jessica Sutter, Daniel A Dale, Karin Sandstrom, J D T Smith, Alberto Bolatto, Mederic Boquien, Daniela Calzetti, Kevin V Croxall, Ilse De Looze, Maud Galametz, Brent A Groves, George Helou, Rodrigo Herrera-Camus, Leslie K Hunt, Robert C Kennicutt, Eric W Pelligrini, Christine Wilson, Mark G Wolfire, The case for thermalization as a contributor to the [C II] deficit, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 503, Issue 1, May 2021, Pages 911–919,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109340
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Jun 2021 17:31
Last Modified:03 Jun 2021 19:02

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