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Tarawera 1886: an integrated review of volcanological and geochemical characteristics of a complex basaltic eruption

Rowe, Michael C. and Carey, Rebecca J. and White, James D. L. and Kilgour, Geoff and Hughes, Ery and Ellis, Ben and Rosseel, Jean-Baptiste and Segovia, Amy (2021) Tarawera 1886: an integrated review of volcanological and geochemical characteristics of a complex basaltic eruption. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 64 (2-3). pp. 296-319. ISSN 0028-8306. doi:10.1080/00288306.2021.1914118.

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The cataclysmic basaltic eruption of Mt. Tarawera in 1886 represents a significant cultural and scientific event for New Zealand. This review utilises published and new observations, to reinterpret eruptive parameters encompassing the entirety of the eruption. The ∼17 km eruptive fissure, active for 4+ hours, extends across Mt. Tarawera to the hydrothermally active Waimangu region. Correlating published observations of bed thickness, componentry and microtextures from Mt. Tarawera to new bed descriptions and granulometry for the Rotomahana-Waimangu rift segment allows for a re-assessment of eruption variations along the length of the fissure. Variably thick pyroclastic fall sequences at Mt. Tarawera contrast with the pyroclastic surges and an eruption plume that together deposited the ‘Rotomahana Mud’ erupted along the Rotomahana-Waimangu segment. Providing insight into pre-eruptive conditions, new mineral chemistry from Mt. Tarawera provides the first constraints on crystallisation pressures (<2 kbar), temperatures (<1100°C), and magmatic water content (<2.8 wt%). Recalculated volumes indicate a bulk eruptive volume of 1.1–1.3 km³, and a juvenile basalt volume of up to 0.67 km³, which then lead to calculated discharge rates of 3.7 × 10⁷–7.8 × 10⁷ kg s⁻¹ for the northern Mt. Tarawera segment of the fissure and 1.4–5.7 × 10⁶ kg s⁻¹ for the Rotomahana segment.

Item Type:Article
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Rowe, Michael C.0000-0002-8052-2882
White, James D. L.0000-0002-2970-711X
Additional Information:© 2021 The Royal Society of New Zealand. Received 19 Dec 2020, Accepted 01 Apr 2021, Published online: 29 Apr 2021. Undergraduate researchers R. Conger-Best, K. Wall, and B. Cargo all contributed mineralogical data toward this work and TIMS analyses were graciously provide by A. Wypych. Additional Rotomahana data was contributed from the unsubmitted PhD thesis work of Michael May – supervised by JDLW and Bruce Houghton. This manuscript benefited from detailed reviews from Jim Cole, James Scott, and an anonymous reviewer. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author(s). Data availability statement: The data that support the findings of this study (10 data tables, 6 figures, and a supplemental methods file) are openly available in Figshare at Partial funding for field and analytical expenses for MCR was provided by an American Philosophical Society Franklin Research grant (2013). Jean-Baptiste Rosseel and Michael May were both supported by University of Otago PhD scholarships and GNS Science.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
American Philosophical SocietyUNSPECIFIED
University of OtagoUNSPECIFIED
Institute for Geological and Nuclear SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Fissure eruption; phreatomagmatic; componentry; mineralogy; eruptive volume; basaltic plinian; geochemistry; mass discharge rate; rotomahana
Issue or Number:2-3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210602-143446687
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Official Citation:Michael C. Rowe, Rebecca J. Carey, James D. L. White, Geoff Kilgour, Ery Hughes, Ben Ellis, Jean-Baptiste Rosseel & Amy Segovia (2021) Tarawera 1886: an integrated review of volcanological and geochemical characteristics of a complex basaltic eruption, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 64:2-3, 296-319, DOI: 10.1080/00288306.2021.1914118
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109351
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Jun 2021 21:50
Last Modified:09 Jul 2021 22:50

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