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Point absorbers in Advanced LIGO

Brooks, Aidan F. and Vajente, Gabriele and Yamamoto, Hiro and Abbott, Rich and Adams, Carl and Adhikari, Rana X. and Ananyeva, Alena and Appert, Stephen and Arai, Koji and Areeda, Joseph S. and Asali, Yasmeen and Aston, Stuart M. and Austin, Corey and Baer, Anne M. and Ball, Matthew and Ballmer, Stefan W. and Banagiri, Sharan and Barker, David and Barsotti, Lisa and Bartlett, Jeffrey and Berger, Beverly K. and Betzwieser, Joseph and Bhattacharjee, Dripta and Billingsley, Garilynn and Biscans, Sebastien and Blair, Carl D. and Blair, Ryan M. and Bode, Nina and Booker, Phillip and Bork, Rolf and Bramley, Alyssa and Brown, Daniel D. and Buikema, Aaron and Cahillane, Craig and Cannon, Kipp C. and Cao, Huy Tuong and Chen, Xu and Ciobanu, Alexei A. and Clara, Filiberto and Compton, Camilla and Cooper, Sam J. and Corley, Kenneth R. and Countryman, Stefan T. and Covas, Pep B. and Coyne, Dennis C. and Datrier, Laurence E. and Davis, Derek and Difronzo, Chiara D. and Dooley, Katherine L. and Driggers, Jenne C. and Dupej, Peter and Dwyer, Sheila E. and Effler, Anamaria and Etzel, Todd and Evans, Matthew and Evans, Tom M. and Feicht, Jon and Fernández-Galiana, Álvaro and Fritschel, Peter and Frolov, Valery V. and Fulda, Paul and Fyffe, Michael and Giaime, Joe A. and Giardina, Dwayne D. and Godwin, Patrick and Goetz, Evan and Gras, Slawomir and Gray, Corey and Gray, Rachel and Green, Anna C. and Gupta, Anchal and Gustafson, Eric K. and Gustafson, Dick and Hall, Evan and Hanks, Jonathan and Hanson, Joe and Hardwick, Terra and Hasskew, Raine K. and Heintze, Matthew C. and Helmling-Cornell, Adrian F. and Holland, Nathan A. and Izmui, Kiamu and Jia, Wenxuan and Jones, Jeff D. and Kandhasamy, Shivaraj and Karki, Sudarshan and Kasprzack, Marie and Kawabe, Keita and Kijbunchoo, Nutsinee and King, Peter J. and Kissel, Jeffrey S. and Kumar, Rahul and Landry, Michael and Lane, Benjamin B. and Lantz, Brian and Laxen, Michael and Lecoeuche, Yannick K. and Leviton, Jessica and Jian, Liu and Lormand, Marc and Lundgren, Andrew P. and Macas, Ronaldas and Macinnis, Myron and Macleod, Duncan M. and Mansell, Georgia L. and Marka, Szabolcs and Marka, Zsuzsanna and Martynov, Denis V. and Mason, Ken and Massinger, Thomas J. and Matichard, Fabrice and Mavalvala, Nergis and McCarthy, Richard and McClelland, David E. and McCormick, Scott and McCuller, Lee and McIver, Jessica and McRae, Terry and Mendell, Gregory and Merfeld, Kara and Merilh, Edmond L. and Meylahn, Fabian and Mistry, Timesh and Mittleman, Richard and Moreno, Gerardo and Mow-Lowry, Conor M. and Mozzon, Simone and Mullavey, Adam and Nelson, Timothy J. and Nguyen, Philippe and Nuttall, Laura K. and Oberling, Jason and Oram, Richard J. and Osthelder, Charles and Ottaway, David J. and Overmier, Harry and Palamos, Jordan R. and Parker, William and Payne, Ethan and Pele, Arnaud and Penhorwood, Reilly and Perez, Carlos J. and Pirello, Marc and Radkins, Hugh and Ramirez, Karla E. and Richardson, Jonathan W. and Riles, Keith and Robertson, Norna A. and Rollins, Jameson G. and Romel, Chandra L. and Romie, Janeen H. and Ross, Michael P. and Ryan, Kyle and Sadecki, Travis and Sanchez, Eduardo J. and Sanchez, Luis E. and Tiruppatturrajamanikkam, Saravanan R. and Savage, Richard L. and Schaetzl, Dean and Schnabel, Roman and Schofield, Robert M. and Schwartz, Eyal and Sellers, Danny and Shaffer, Thomas and Sigg, Daniel and Slagmolen, Bram J. and Smith, Joshua R. and Soni, Siddharth and Sorazu, Borja and Spencer, Andrew P. and Strain, Ken A. and Sun, Ling and Szczepanczyk, Marek J. and Thomas, Michael and Thomas, Patrick and Thorne, Keith A. and Toland, Karl and Torrie, Calum I. and Traylor, Gary and Tse, Maggie and Urban, Alexander L. and Valdes, Guillermo and Vander-Hyde, Daniel C. and Veitch, Peter J. and Venkateswara, Krishna and Venugopalan, Gautam and Viets, Aaron D. and Vo, Thomas and Vorvick, Cheryl and Wade, Madeline and Ward, Robert L. and Warner, Jim and Weaver, Betsy and Weiss, Rainer and Whittle, Chris and Willke, Benno and Wipf, Christopher C. and Xiao, Liting and Yu, Hang and Yu, Haocun and Zhang, Liyuan and Zucker, Michael E. and Zweizig, John (2021) Point absorbers in Advanced LIGO. Applied Optics, 60 (13). pp. 4047-4063. ISSN 1559-128X. doi:10.1364/ao.419689.

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Small, highly absorbing points are randomly present on the surfaces of the main interferometer optics in Advanced LIGO. The resulting nanometer scale thermo-elastic deformations and substrate lenses from these micron-scale absorbers significantly reduce the sensitivity of the interferometer directly though a reduction in the power-recycling gain and indirect interactions with the feedback control system. We review the expected surface deformation from point absorbers and provide a pedagogical description of the impact on power buildup in second generation gravitational wave detectors (dual-recycled Fabry–Perot Michelson interferometers). This analysis predicts that the power-dependent reduction in interferometer performance will significantly degrade maximum stored power by up to 50% and, hence, limit GW sensitivity, but it suggests system wide corrections that can be implemented in current and future GW detectors. This is particularly pressing given that future GW detectors call for an order of magnitude more stored power than currently used in Advanced LIGO in Observing Run 3. We briefly review strategies to mitigate the effects of point absorbers in current and future GW wave detectors to maximize the success of these enterprises.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Brooks, Aidan F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Vajente, Gabriele0000-0002-7656-6882
Yamamoto, Hiro0000-0001-6919-9570
Adhikari, Rana X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Arai, Koji0000-0001-8916-8915
Banagiri, Sharan0000-0001-7852-7484
Barsotti, Lisa0000-0001-9819-2562
Billingsley, Garilynn0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, Sebastien0000-0002-9635-7527
Blair, Carl D.0000-0003-4566-6888
Bode, Nina0000-0002-7101-9396
Buikema, Aaron0000-0001-9409-5757
Cahillane, Craig0000-0002-3888-314X
Cannon, Kipp C.0000-0003-4068-6572
Cao, Huy Tuong0000-0001-6583-6907
Coyne, Dennis C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Davis, Derek0000-0001-5620-6751
Evans, Matthew0000-0001-8459-4499
Fernández-Galiana, Álvaro0000-0002-8940-9261
Goetz, Evan0000-0003-2666-721X
Gupta, Anchal0000-0002-1762-9644
Hall, Evan0000-0001-9018-666X
Kissel, Jeffrey S.0000-0002-1702-9577
Matichard, Fabrice0000-0001-8982-8418
McCuller, Lee0000-0003-0851-0593
McIver, Jessica0000-0003-0316-1355
Mow-Lowry, Conor M.0000-0002-0351-4555
Ottaway, David J.0000-0001-6794-1591
Payne, Ethan0000-0003-4507-8373
Pele, Arnaud0000-0002-1873-3769
Richardson, Jonathan W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Rollins, Jameson G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Ross, Michael P.0000-0002-8955-5269
Savage, Richard L.0000-0003-3317-1036
Schnabel, Roman0000-0003-2896-4218
Sun, Ling0000-0001-7959-892X
Veitch, Peter J.0000-0002-2597-435X
Venugopalan, Gautam0000-0003-4414-9918
Willke, Benno0000-0003-0524-2925
Xiao, Liting0000-0003-2703-449X
Yu, Hang0000-0002-6011-6190
Yu, Haocun0000-0002-7597-098X
Zhang, Liyuan0000-0002-0898-787X
Zucker, Michael E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, John0000-0002-1521-3397
Additional Information:© 2021 Optical Society of America. Received 28 January 2021; revised 31 March 2021; accepted 31 March 2021; posted 7 April 2021 (Doc. ID 419689); published 30 April 2021. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and aLIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, and the Max-Planck-Society (MPS) for support of the construction of aLIGO. Additional support for aLIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors acknowledge the LIGO Scientific Collaboration Fellows program for additional support. LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the NSF, and operates under cooperative agreement PHY-1764464. aLIGO was built under award PHY-0823459. This paper carries LIGO Document Number LIGO-P1900287. Funding. National Science Foundation (NSF) (PHY-0823459, PHY-1764464). Data Availability. Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
LIGO Scientific CollaborationUNSPECIFIED
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP1900287
Issue or Number:13
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210604-111536306
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Aidan F. Brooks, Gabriele Vajente, Hiro Yamamoto, Rich Abbott, Carl Adams, Rana X. Adhikari, Alena Ananyeva, Stephen Appert, Koji Arai, Joseph S. Areeda, Yasmeen Asali, Stuart M. Aston, Corey Austin, Anne M. Baer, Matthew Ball, Stefan W. Ballmer, Sharan Banagiri, David Barker, Lisa Barsotti, Jeffrey Bartlett, Beverly K. Berger, Joseph Betzwieser, Dripta Bhattacharjee, Garilynn Billingsley, Sebastien Biscans, Carl D. Blair, Ryan M. Blair, Nina Bode, Phillip Booker, Rolf Bork, Alyssa Bramley, Daniel D. Brown, Aaron Buikema, Craig Cahillane, Kipp C. Cannon, Huy Tuong Cao, Xu Chen, Alexei A. Ciobanu, Filiberto Clara, Camilla Compton, Sam J. Cooper, Kenneth R. Corley, Stefan T. Countryman, Pep B. Covas, Dennis C. Coyne, Laurence E. Datrier, Derek Davis, Chiara D. Difronzo, Katherine L. Dooley, Jenne C. Driggers, Peter Dupej, Sheila E. Dwyer, Anamaria Effler, Todd Etzel, Matthew Evans, Tom M. Evans, Jon Feicht, Alvaro Fernandez-Galiana, Peter Fritschel, Valery V. Frolov, Paul Fulda, Michael Fyffe, Joe A. Giaime, Dwayne D. Giardina, Patrick Godwin, Evan Goetz, Slawomir Gras, Corey Gray, Rachel Gray, Anna C. Green, Anchal Gupta, Eric K. Gustafson, Dick Gustafson, Evan Hall, Jonathan Hanks, Joe Hanson, Terra Hardwick, Raine K. Hasskew, Matthew C. Heintze, Adrian F. Helmling-Cornell, Nathan A. Holland, Kiamu Izmui, Wenxuan Jia, Jeff D. Jones, Shivaraj Kandhasamy, Sudarshan Karki, Marie Kasprzack, Keita Kawabe, Nutsinee Kijbunchoo, Peter J. King, Jeffrey S. Kissel, Rahul Kumar, Michael Landry, Benjamin B. Lane, Brian Lantz, Michael Laxen, Yannick K. Lecoeuche, Jessica Leviton, Liu Jian, Marc Lormand, Andrew P. Lundgren, Ronaldas Macas, Myron Macinnis, Duncan M. Macleod, Georgia L. Mansell, Szabolcs Marka, Zsuzsanna Marka, Denis V. Martynov, Ken Mason, Thomas J. Massinger, Fabrice Matichard, Nergis Mavalvala, Richard McCarthy, David E. McClelland, Scott McCormick, Lee McCuller, Jessica McIver, Terry McRae, Gregory Mendell, Kara Merfeld, Edmond L. Merilh, Fabian Meylahn, Timesh Mistry, Richard Mittleman, Gerardo Moreno, Conor M. Mow-Lowry, Simone Mozzon, Adam Mullavey, Timothy J. Nelson, Philippe Nguyen, Laura K. Nuttall, Jason Oberling, Richard J. Oram, Charles Osthelder, David J. Ottaway, Harry Overmier, Jordan R. Palamos, William Parker, Ethan Payne, Arnaud Pele, Reilly Penhorwood, Carlos J. Perez, Marc Pirello, Hugh Radkins, Karla E. Ramirez, Jonathan W. Richardson, Keith Riles, Norna A. Robertson, Jameson G. Rollins, Chandra L. Romel, Janeen H. Romie, Michael P. Ross, Kyle Ryan, Travis Sadecki, Eduardo J. Sanchez, Luis E. Sanchez, Saravanan R. Tiruppatturrajamanikkam, Richard L. Savage, Dean Schaetzl, Roman Schnabel, Robert M. Schofield, Eyal Schwartz, Danny Sellers, Thomas Shaffer, Daniel Sigg, Bram J. Slagmolen, Joshua R. Smith, Siddharth Soni, Borja Sorazu, Andrew P. Spencer, Ken A. Strain, Ling Sun, Marek J. Szczepanczyk, Michael Thomas, Patrick Thomas, Keith A. Thorne, Karl Toland, Calum I. Torrie, Gary Traylor, Maggie Tse, Alexander L. Urban, Guillermo Valdes, Daniel C. Vander-Hyde, Peter J. Veitch, Krishna Venkateswara, Gautam Venugopalan, Aaron D. Viets, Thomas Vo, Cheryl Vorvick, Madeline Wade, Robert L. Ward, Jim Warner, Betsy Weaver, Rainer Weiss, Chris Whittle, Benno Willke, Christopher C. Wipf, Liting Xiao, Hang Yu, Haocun Yu, Liyuan Zhang, Michael E. Zucker, and John Zweizig, "Point absorbers in Advanced LIGO," Appl. Opt. 60, 4047-4063 (2021)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109390
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 Jun 2021 20:16
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 19:35

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