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The ALPINE-ALMA [CII] survey. Obscured star formation rate density and main sequence of star-forming galaxies at z > 4

Khusanova, Y. and Bethermin, M. and Le Fèvre, O. and Capak, P. and Faisst, A. L. and Schaerer, D. and Silverman, J. D. and Cassata, P. and Yan, L. and Ginolfi, M. and Fudamoto, Y. and Loiacono, F. and Amorin, R. and Bardelli, S. and Boquien, M. and Cimatti, A. and Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. and Gruppioni, C. and Hathi, N. P. and Jones, G. C. and Koekemoer, A. M. and Lagache, G. and Maiolino, R. and Lemaux, B. C. and Oesch, P. and Pozzi, F. and Riechers, D. A. and Romano, M. and Talia, M. and Toft, S. and Vergani, D. and Zamorani, G. and Zucca, E. (2021) The ALPINE-ALMA [CII] survey. Obscured star formation rate density and main sequence of star-forming galaxies at z > 4. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 649 . Art. No. A152. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038944.

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Star formation rate (SFR) measurements at z > 4 have relied mostly on the rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations. The corrections for dust attenuation based on the IRX-β relation are highly uncertain and are still debated in the literature. Hence, rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) observations are necessary to constrain the dust-obscured component of the SFR. In this paper, we exploit the rest-frame FIR continuum observations collected by the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE) to directly constrain the obscured SFR in galaxies at 4.4 < z < 5.9. We used stacks of continuum images to measure average infrared luminosities taking both detected and undetected sources into account. Based on these measurements, we measured the position of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies and the specific SFR (sSFR) at z ∼ 4.5 and z ∼ 5.5. We find that the main sequence and sSFR do not significantly evolve between z ∼ 4.5 and z ∼ 5.5, as opposed to lower redshifts. We developed a method to derive the obscured SFR density (SFRD) using the stellar masses or FUV-magnitudes as a proxy of FIR fluxes measured on the stacks and combining them with the galaxy stellar mass functions and FUV luminosity functions from the literature. We obtain consistent results independent of the chosen proxy. We find that the obscured fraction of SFRD is decreasing with increasing redshift, but even at z ∼ 5.5 it constitutes around 61% of the total SFRD.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Khusanova, Y.0000-0002-7220-397X
Bethermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
Le Fèvre, O.0000-0001-5891-2596
Capak, P.0000-0003-3578-6843
Faisst, A. L.0000-0002-9382-9832
Schaerer, D.0000-0001-7144-7182
Silverman, J. D.0000-0002-0000-6977
Cassata, P.0000-0002-6716-4400
Yan, L.0000-0003-1710-9339
Ginolfi, M.0000-0002-8231-821X
Fudamoto, Y.0000-0001-7440-8832
Loiacono, F.0000-0002-8858-6784
Amorin, R.0000-0001-5758-1000
Bardelli, S.0000-0002-8900-0298
Boquien, M.0000-0003-0946-6176
Cimatti, A.0000-0002-4409-5633
Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.0000-0003-0348-2917
Gruppioni, C.0000-0002-5836-4056
Hathi, N. P.0000-0001-6145-5090
Jones, G. C.0000-0002-0267-9024
Koekemoer, A. M.0000-0002-6610-2048
Lagache, G.0000-0003-1492-2519
Maiolino, R.0000-0002-4985-3819
Lemaux, B. C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Oesch, P.0000-0001-5851-6649
Pozzi, F.0000-0002-7412-647X
Riechers, D. A.0000-0001-9585-1462
Romano, M.0000-0002-9948-3916
Talia, M.0000-0003-4352-2063
Toft, S.0000-0003-3631-7176
Vergani, D.0000-0003-0898-2216
Zamorani, G.0000-0002-2318-301X
Zucca, E.0000-0002-5845-8132
Additional Information:© Y. Khusanova et al. 2021. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society. Received 16 July 2020; Accepted 1 February 2021. Published online 01 June 2021. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Le Fèvre, PI of the ALPINE survey. This paper is based on data obtained with the ALMA Observatory, under Large Program 2017.1.00428.L. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. This paper is based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium. This work is based on data products made available at the CESAM data center, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, France. YK acknowledges the support by funding from the European Research Council Advanced Grant ERC–2010–AdG–268107–EARLY. AC, CG, FL, FP and MT acknowledge the support from grant PRIN MIUR 2017 - 20173ML3WW_001. GL acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project CONCERTO, grant agreement No 788212) and from the Excellence Initiative of Aix-Marseille University-A*Midex, a French “Investissements d’Avenir” programme. D.R. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under grant numbers AST-1614213 and AST-1910107. D.R. also acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers. G.C.J. acknowledges ERC Advanced Grant 695671 “QUENCH” and support by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). S.T. acknowledges support from the ERC Consolidator Grant funding scheme (project ConTExt, grant number No. 648179). The Cosmic Dawn Center is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation under grant No. 140. R.A. acknowledges support from FONDECYT Regular Grant 1202007. This program is supported by the national program Cosmology and Galaxies from the CNRS in France.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)268107
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)20173ML3WW_001
European Research Council (ERC)788212
Aix-Marseille UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)695671
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)648179
Danish National Research Foundation140
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1202007
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: high-redshift – galaxies: evolution – galaxies: star formation – submillimeter: galaxies
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210608-092348926
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The ALPINE-ALMA [CII] survey - Obscured star formation rate density and main sequence of star-forming galaxies at z > 4. Y. Khusanova, M. Bethermin, O. Le Fèvre, P. Capak, A. L. Faisst, D. Schaerer, J. D. Silverman, P. Cassata, L. Yan, M. Ginolfi, Y. Fudamoto, F. Loiacono, R. Amorin, S. Bardelli, M. Boquien, A. Cimatti, M. Dessauges-Zavadsky, C. Gruppioni, N. P. Hathi, G. C. Jones, A. M. Koekemoer, G. Lagache, R. Maiolino, B. C. Lemaux, P. Oesch, F. Pozzi, D. A. Riechers, M. Romano, M. Talia, S. Toft, D. Vergani, G. Zamorani and E. Zucca. A&A, 649 (2021) A152. DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109436
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Jun 2021 19:12
Last Modified:09 Jun 2021 19:12

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