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Approaching the motional ground state of a 10-kg object

Whittle, Chris and Hall, Evan D. and Dwyer, Sheila and Mavalvala, Nergis and Sudhir, Vivishek and Abbott, R. and Ananyeva, A. and Austin, C. and Barsotti, L. and Betzwieser, J. and Blair, C. D. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. D. and Buikema, A. and Cahillane, C. and Driggers, J. C. and Effler, A. and Fernandez-Galiana, A. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Hardwick, T. and Kasprzack, M. and Kawabe, K. and Kijbunchoo, N. and Kissel, J. S. and Mansell, G. L. and Matichard, F. and McCuller, L. and McRae, T. and Mullavey, A. and Pele, A. and Schofield, R. M. S. and Sigg, D. and Tse, M. and Vajente, G. and Vander-Hyde, D. C. and Yu, Hang and Yu, Haocun and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Areeda, J. S. and Asali, Y. and Aston, S. M. and Baer, A. M. and Ball, M. and Ballmer, S. W. and Banagiri, S. and Barker, D. and Bartlett, J. and Berger, B. K. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Billingsley, G. and Biscans, S. and Blair, R. M. and Bode, N. and Booker, P. and Bork, R. and Bramley, A. and Cannon, K. C. and Chen, X. and Ciobanu, A. A. and Clara, F. and Compton, C. M. and Cooper, S. J. and Corley, K. R. and Countryman, S. T. and Covas, P. B. and Coyne, D. C. and Datrier, L. E. H. and Davis, D. and Di Fronzo, C. and Dooley, K. L. and Dupej, P. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. M. and Feicht, J. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Godwin, P. and Goetz, E. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, R. and Green, A. C. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hanks, J. and Hanson, J. and Hasskew, R. K. and Heintze, M. C. and Helmling-Cornell, A. F. and Holland, N. A. and Jones, J. D. and Kandhasamy, S. and Karki, S. and King, P. J. and Kumar, Rahul and Landry, M. and Lane, B. B. and Lantz, B. and Laxen, M. and Lecoeuche, Y. K. and Leviton, J. and Liu, J. and Lormand, M. and Lundgren, A. P. and Macas, R. and MacInnis, M. and Macleod, D. M. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Martynov, D. V. and Mason, K. and Massinger, T. J. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McCormick, S. and McIver, J. and Mendell, G. and Merfeld, K. and Merilh, E. L. and Meylahn, F. and Mistry, T. and Mittleman, R. and Moreno, G. and Mow-Lowry, C. M. and Mozzon, S. and Nelson, T. J. N. and Nguyen, P. and Nuttall, L. K. and Oberling, J. and Oram, Richard J. and Osthelder, C. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Palamos, J. R. and Parker, W. and Payne, E. and Penhorwood, R. and Perez, C. J. and Pirello, M. and Radkins, H. and Ramirez, K. E. and Richardson, J. W. and Riles, K. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Romel, C. L. and Romie, J. H. and Ross, M. P. and Ryan, K. and Sadecki, T. and Sanchez, E. J. and Sanchez, L. E. and Saravanan, T. R. and Savage, R. L. and Schaetzl, D. and Schnabel, R. and Schwartz, E. and Sellers, D. and Shaffer, T. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Smith, J. R. and Soni, S. and Sorazu, B. and Spencer, A. P. and Strain, K. A. and Sun, L. and Szczepańczyk, M. J. and Thomas, M. and Thomas, P. and Thorne, K. A. and Toland, K. and Torrie, C. I. and Traylor, G. and Urban, A. L. and Valdes, G. and Veitch, P. J. and Venkateswara, K. and Venugopalan, G. and Viets, A. D. and Vo, T. and Vorvick, C. and Wade, M. and Ward, R. L. and Warner, J. and Weaver, B. and Weiss, R. and Willke, B. and Wipf, C. C. and Xiao, L. and Yamamoto, H. and Zhang, L. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. (2021) Approaching the motional ground state of a 10-kg object. Science, 372 (6548). pp. 1333-1336. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.abh2634.

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The motion of a mechanical object, even a human-sized object, should be governed by the rules of quantum mechanics. Coaxing them into a quantum state is, however, difficult because the thermal environment masks any quantum signature of the object’s motion. The thermal environment also masks the effects of proposed modifications of quantum mechanics at large mass scales. We prepared the center-of-mass motion of a 10-kilogram mechanical oscillator in a state with an average phonon occupation of 10.8. The reduction in temperature, from room temperature to 77 nanokelvin, is commensurate with an 11 orders-of-magnitude suppression of quantum back-action by feedback and a 13 orders-of-magnitude increase in the mass of an object prepared close to its motional ground state. Our approach will enable the possibility of probing gravity on massive quantum systems.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Materials Paper
Whittle, Chris0000-0002-8833-7438
Hall, Evan D.0000-0001-9018-666X
Dwyer, Sheila0000-0002-2068-277X
Sudhir, Vivishek0000-0002-5397-6950
Barsotti, L.0000-0001-9819-2562
Betzwieser, J.0000-0003-1533-9229
Blair, C. D.0000-0003-4566-6888
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Driggers, J. C.0000-0002-6134-7628
Fernandez-Galiana, A.0000-0002-8940-9261
Fritschel, P.0000-0003-1983-3187
Kasprzack, M.0000-0003-4618-5939
Kawabe, K.0000-0001-5205-9109
Kijbunchoo, N.0000-0002-2874-1228
Kissel, J. S.0000-0002-1702-9577
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Mullavey, A.0000-0002-8123-7338
Pele, A.0000-0002-1873-3769
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Tse, M.0000-0003-1510-4921
Vajente, G.0000-0002-7656-6882
Yu, Hang0000-0002-6011-6190
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Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
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Cannon, K. C.0000-0003-4068-6572
Ciobanu, A. A.0000-0002-4793-093X
Compton, C. M.0000-0002-8217-5749
Cooper, S. J.0000-0001-8114-3596
Countryman, S. T.0000-0003-0613-2760
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Datrier, L. E. H.0000-0002-0290-3129
Davis, D.0000-0001-5620-6751
Dooley, K. L.0000-0002-1636-0233
Evans, M.0000-0001-8459-4499
Evans, T. M.0000-0003-4387-4843
Feicht, J.0000-0001-5223-7091
Fulda, P.0000-0003-2564-2045
Giaime, J. A.0000-0002-3531-817X
Goetz, E.0000-0003-2666-721X
Green, A. C.0000-0002-6287-8746
Helmling-Cornell, A. F.0000-0002-7709-8638
Kandhasamy, S.0000-0002-4825-6764
Lane, B. B.0000-0002-7379-3764
Lantz, B.0000-0002-7404-4845
Laxen, M.0000-0001-7515-9639
Liu, J.0000-0001-6726-3268
MacInnis, M.0000-0001-8733-9207
Macleod, D. M.0000-0002-1395-8694
Márka, S.0000-0002-3957-1324
Martynov, D. V.0000-0003-0679-1344
McClelland, D. E.0000-0001-6210-5842
McIver, J.0000-0003-0316-1355
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Mow-Lowry, C. M.0000-0002-0351-4555
Mozzon, S.0000-0002-8855-2509
Nuttall, L. K.0000-0002-8599-8791
Ottaway, D. J.0000-0001-6794-1591
Parker, W.0000-0002-7711-4423
Pirello, M.0000-0002-2857-4642
Ramirez, K. E.0000-0003-2194-7669
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Riles, K.0000-0002-6418-5812
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Ross, M. P.0000-0002-8955-5269
Savage, R. L.0000-0003-3317-1036
Schnabel, R.0000-0003-2896-4218
Schwartz, E.0000-0001-8922-7794
Smith, J. R.0000-0003-0638-9670
Sorazu, B.0000-0002-6178-3198
Strain, K. A.0000-0002-2066-5355
Sun, L.0000-0001-7959-892X
Szczepańczyk, M. J.0000-0002-6167-6149
Thorne, K. A.0000-0001-7948-9619
Veitch, P. J.0000-0002-2597-435X
Venugopalan, G.0000-0003-4414-9918
Viets, A. D.0000-0002-4241-1428
Vorvick, C.0000-0003-1591-3358
Wade, M.0000-0002-5703-4469
Weaver, B.0000-0002-2242-0327
Willke, B.0000-0003-0524-2925
Xiao, L.0000-0003-2703-449X
Yamamoto, H.0000-0001-6919-9570
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Additional Information:© 2021 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Received 26 February 2021; accepted 5 May 2021. V.S. thanks V. Vuletić for useful conversations. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) LIGO Laboratory, which is a major facility fully funded by the NSF. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO, as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, and the Max-Planck-Society (MPS) for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors acknowledge the LIGO Scientific Collaboration Fellows program for additional support. LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the National Science Foundation and operates under cooperative agreement no. PHY-1764464. Advanced LIGO was built under award no. PHY-0823459. E.D.H. is supported by the MathWorks, Inc. This manuscript is LIGO document no. LIGO-P2000525. The authors declare no competing interests. Author contributions: V.S., E.D.H., and N.M. conceived this project. C.W., E.D.H., S.D., and V.S. designed and implemented the modifications to the Advanced LIGO detector that enabled the experiment. All authors contributed to the running, diagnostics, and calibration of the detector. C.W., E.D.H., and V.S. analyzed the data. V.S. wrote the manuscript with help from E.D.H., C.W., and N.M. V.S. developed the theoretical models and supervised the project. Other LIGO collaboration authors contributed to the design, construction, and operation of Advanced LIGO and the development and maintenance of data handling, data reduction, and data analysis. All authors meet the journal’s authorship criteria and have reviewed, discussed, and commented on the results and the manuscript. Data and materials availability: All data needed to evaluate the conclusions of this study are provided in the main text or the supplementary materials.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP2000525
Issue or Number:6548
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210624-200259821
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Official Citation:Approaching the motional ground state of a 10-kg object. Chris Whittle, et. al., Science 372 (6548), 1333-1336; DOI: 10.1126/science.abh2634
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109567
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Jun 2021 20:26
Last Modified:24 Jun 2021 20:26

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