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Perseverance’s Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) Investigation

Bhartia, Rohit and Beegle, Luther W. and DeFlores, Lauren and Abbey, William and Hollis, Joseph Razzell and Uckert, Kyle and Monacelli, Brian and Edgett, Kenneth S. and Kennedy, Megan R. and Sylvia, Margarite and Aldrich, David and Anderson, Mark and Asher, Sanford A. and Bailey, Zachary and Boyd, Kerry and Burton, Aaron S. and Caffrey, Michael and Calaway, Michael J. and Calvet, Robert and Cameron, Bruce and Caplinger, Michael A. and Carrier, Brandi L. and Chen, Nataly and Chen, Amy and Clark, Matthew J. and Clegg, Samuel and Conrad, Pamela G. and Cooper, Moogega and Davis, Kristine N. and Ehlmann, Bethany and Facto, Linda and Fries, Marc D. and Garrison, Dan H. and Gasway, Denine and Ghaemi, F. Tony and Graff, Trevor G. and Hand, Kevin P. and Harris, Cathleen and Hein, Jeffrey D. and Heinz, Nicholas and Herzog, Harrison and Hochberg, Eric and Houck, Andrew and Hug, William F. and Jensen, Elsa H. and Kah, Linda C. and Kennedy, John and Krylo, Robert and Lam, Johnathan and Lindeman, Mark and McGlown, Justin and Michel, John and Miller, Ed and Mills, Zachary and Minitti, Michelle E. and Mok, Fai and Moore, James and Nealson, Kenneth H. and Nelson, Anthony and Newell, Raymond and Nixon, Brian E. and Nordman, Daniel A. and Nuding, Danielle and Orellana, Sonny and Pauken, Michael and Peterson, Glen and Pollock, Randy and Quinn, Heather and Quinto, Claire and Ravine, Michael A. and Reid, Ray D. and Riendeau, Joe and Ross, Amy J. and Sackos, Joshua and Schaffner, Jacob A. and Schwochert, Mark and Shelton, Molly O. and Simon, Rufus and Smith, Caroline L. and Sobron, Pablo and Steadman, Kimberly and Steele, Andrew and Thiessen, Dave and Tran, Vinh D. and Tsai, Tony and Tuite, Michael and Tung, Eric and Wehbe, Rami and Weinberg, Rachel and Weiner, Ryan H. and Wiens, Roger C. and Williford, Kenneth and Wollonciej, Chris and Wu, Yen-Hung and Yingst, R. Aileen and Zan, Jason (2021) Perseverance’s Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) Investigation. Space Science Reviews, 217 (4). Art. No. 58. ISSN 0038-6308. doi:10.1007/s11214-021-00812-z.

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The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) is a robotic arm-mounted instrument on NASA’s Perseverance rover. SHERLOC has two primary boresights. The Spectroscopy boresight generates spatially resolved chemical maps using fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy coupled to microscopic images (10.1 μm/pixel). The second boresight is a Wide Angle Topographic Sensor for Operations and eNgineering (WATSON); a copy of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) that obtains color images from microscopic scales (∼13 μm/pixel) to infinity. SHERLOC Spectroscopy focuses a 40 μs pulsed deep UV neon-copper laser (248.6 nm), to a ∼100 μm spot on a target at a working distance of ∼48 mm. Fluorescence emissions from organics, and Raman scattered photons from organics and minerals, are spectrally resolved with a single diffractive grating spectrograph with a spectral range of 250 to ∼370 nm. Because the fluorescence and Raman regions are naturally separated with deep UV excitation (<250 nm), the Raman region ∼ 800 – 4000 cm⁻¹ (250 to 273 nm) and the fluorescence region (274 to ∼370 nm) are acquired simultaneously without time gating or additional mechanisms. SHERLOC science begins by using an Autofocus Context Imager (ACI) to obtain target focus and acquire 10.1 μm/pixel greyscale images. Chemical maps of organic and mineral signatures are acquired by the orchestration of an internal scanning mirror that moves the focused laser spot across discrete points on the target surface where spectra are captured on the spectrometer detector. ACI images and chemical maps (< 100 μm/mapping pixel) will enable the first Mars in situ view of the spatial distribution and interaction between organics, minerals, and chemicals important to the assessment of potential biogenicity (containing CHNOPS). Single robotic arm placement chemical maps can cover areas up to 7x7 mm in area and, with the < 10 min acquisition time per map, larger mosaics are possible with arm movements. This microscopic view of the organic geochemistry of a target at the Perseverance field site, when combined with the other instruments, such as Mastcam-Z, PIXL, and SuperCam, will enable unprecedented analysis of geological materials for both scientific research and determination of which samples to collect and cache for Mars sample return.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Bhartia, Rohit0000-0002-1434-7481
Beegle, Luther W.0000-0002-4944-4353
Carrier, Brandi L.0000-0001-9943-7138
Ehlmann, Bethany0000-0002-2745-3240
Hand, Kevin P.0000-0002-3225-9426
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit Received 23 July 2020; Accepted 20 February 2021; Published 25 May 2021. The Mars 2020 Mission. Edited by Kenneth A. Farley, Kenneth H. Williford and Kathryn M. Stack. The work described in this paper was partially carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank the NASA Postdoctoral Program fellowship awarded to Joseph Razzell Hollis, administered by the Universities Space Research Association on behalf of NASA. We thank K. D. Supulver for help with the WATSON motor count to working distance equations. We would thank the two reviewers for reading and improving the paper. We gratefully acknowledge the supporting contributions of Mars 2020 Project Personnel and Review Board members Dave Braun, Tom Glavich, Steve Macenka, Bill Mateer, Glenn Reeves, Jeff Simmonds, Mark Underwood, Mike Wilson, Kevin Clark, Elizabeth Cordoba, Soren Norvang Madsen, Nicole Spanovich, Art Thompson and Steven Scott. We also like to thank all the support of everyone who participated in a review board for any subsystem during the 6 years of instrument design and development. Finally, we wish to give our sincere thanks to everyone who worked the Deep UV spectroscopy technology during the 22 years that it was under development at JPL. It really was a herculean effort done by a group of truly excellent scientists and engineers.
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NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210629-162102313
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Official Citation:Bhartia, R., Beegle, L.W., DeFlores, L. et al. Perseverance’s Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) Investigation. Space Sci Rev 217, 58 (2021).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109644
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:29 Jun 2021 16:44
Last Modified:29 Jun 2021 16:44

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