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The California Legacy Survey. I. A Catalog of 178 Planets from Precision Radial Velocity Monitoring of 719 Nearby Stars over Three Decades

Rosenthal, Lee J. and Fulton, Benjamin J. and Hirsch, Lea A. and Isaacson, Howard T. and Howard, Andrew W. and Dedrick, Cayla M. and Sherstyuk, Ilya A. and Blunt, Sarah C. and Petigura, Erik A. and Knutson, Heather A. and Behmard, Aida and Chontos, Ashley and Crepp, Justin R. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Dalba, Paul A. and Fischer, Debra A. and Henry, Gregory W. and Kane, Stephen R. and Kosiarek, Molly and Marcy, Geoffrey W. and Rubenzahl, Ryan A. and Weiss, Lauren M. and Wright, Jason T. (2021) The California Legacy Survey. I. A Catalog of 178 Planets from Precision Radial Velocity Monitoring of 719 Nearby Stars over Three Decades. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 255 (1). Art. No. 8. ISSN 0067-0049. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/abe23c.

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We present a high-precision radial velocity (RV) survey of 719 FGKM stars, which host 164 known exoplanets and 14 newly discovered or revised exoplanets and substellar companions. This catalog updated the orbital parameters of known exoplanets and long-period candidates, some of which have decades-longer observational baselines than they did upon initial detection. The newly discovered exoplanets range from warm sub-Neptunes and super-Earths to cold gas giants. We present the catalog sample selection criteria, as well as over 100,000 RV measurements, which come from the Keck-HIRES, APF-Levy, and Lick-Hamilton spectrographs. We introduce the new RV search pipeline RVSearch ( that we used to generate our planet catalog, and we make it available to the public as an open-source Python package. This paper is the first study in a planned series that will measure exoplanet occurrence rates and compare exoplanet populations, including studies of giant planet occurrence beyond the water ice line, and eccentricity distributions to explore giant planet formation pathways. We have made public all radial velocities and associated data that we use in this catalog.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Rosenthal, Lee J.0000-0001-8391-5182
Fulton, Benjamin J.0000-0003-3504-5316
Hirsch, Lea A.0000-0001-8058-7443
Isaacson, Howard T.0000-0002-0531-1073
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Dedrick, Cayla M.0000-0001-9408-8848
Sherstyuk, Ilya A.0000-0001-7730-0202
Blunt, Sarah C.0000-0002-3199-2888
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Knutson, Heather A.0000-0002-5375-4725
Behmard, Aida0000-0003-0012-9093
Chontos, Ashley0000-0003-1125-2564
Crepp, Justin R.0000-0003-0800-0593
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Dalba, Paul A.0000-0002-4297-5506
Fischer, Debra A.0000-0003-2221-0861
Henry, Gregory W.0000-0003-4155-8513
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Kosiarek, Molly0000-0002-6115-4359
Marcy, Geoffrey W.0000-0002-2909-0113
Rubenzahl, Ryan A.0000-0003-3856-3143
Weiss, Lauren M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Wright, Jason T.0000-0001-6160-5888
Alternate Title:The California Legacy Survey I. A Catalog of 177 Planets from Precision Radial Velocity Monitoring of 719 Nearby Stars over Three Decades
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 July 3; revised 2021 January 15; accepted 2021 January 22; published 2021 July 1. L.J.R. led the construction of this paper, including finalizing the stellar sample, running the Keplerian search, assessing planet candidates and generating the planet catalog, generating most of the figures, and writing this manuscript. The RVsearch pipeline was developed by L.J.R., B.J.F., and L.A.H., with assistance from A.W.H., H.T.I., and E.A.P., and C.M.D., B.J.F., A.W.H., L.A.H., H.T.I., E.A.P., and I.A.S. assisted L.J.R. in vetting the planet candidates and insuring the integrity of the RVs and the planet catalog. A.W.H., G.W.M. (though 2015), D.A.F., and J.T.W. provided leadership and funding to CPS and CCPS. L.J.R., B.J.F., L.A.H., H.T.I., A.W.H., S.C.B., E.A.P., A.B., A.C., J.R.C., I.J.M.C., P.A.D., D.A.F., M.K., G.W.M., R.A.R., L.M.W., and J.T.W. contributed significantly to the Doppler observations. H.T.I., A.W.H., B.J.F., and G.W.M. executed and refined the Doppler pipeline that produced the RVs reported here. G.W.H. contributed photometry and analysis that were used to rule out stellar activity signals. I.A.S. provided similar analysis of activity based on a suite of indicators. B.J.F., A.W.H., E.A.P., L.M.W., R.A.R., and H.T.I. created an internal data visualization system ("Jump") that was integral to this project. L.J.R., B.J.F., A.W.H., L.A.H., H.T.I., E.A.P., H.A.K., S.R.K., P.A.D., and L.M.W. contributed to the discussion section and structure of this paper, as well as the strategy of this paper and successors in the CLS series. We thank Jay Anderson, Gáspár Bakos, Mike Bottom, John Brewer, Christian Clanton, Jason Curtis, Fei Dai, Steven Giacalone, Sam Grunblatt, Michelle Hill, Lynne Hillenbrand, Rebecca Jensen-Clem, John A. Johnson, Chris McCarthy, Sean Mills, Teo Močnik, Ben Montet, Jack Moriarty, Tim Morton, Phil Muirhead, Sebastian Pineda, Nikolai Piskunov, Eugenio Rivera, Julien Spronck, Jonathan Swift, Guillermo Torres, Jeff Valenti, Sharon Wang, Josh Winn, Judah van Zandt, Ming Zhao, and others who contributed to the observations and analysis reported here. We acknowledge R. P. Butler and S. S. Vogt for many years of contributing to this data set. This research has made use of the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), which is operated by the W. M. Keck Observatory and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We acknowledge RVs stemming from HIRES data in KOA with principal investigators from the LCES collaboration (S. S. Vogt, R. P. Butler, and N. Haghighipour). We gratefully acknowledge the efforts and dedication of the Keck Observatory staff for support of HIRES and remote observing. We are grateful to the time assignment committees of the Caltech, the University of California, the University of Hawaii, NASA, and NOAO for their generous allocations of observing time. Without their long-term commitment to RV monitoring, these planets would likely remain unknown. We thank Ken and Gloria Levy, who supported the construction of the Levy Spectrometer on the Automated Planet Finder, which was used heavily for this research. We thank the University of California and Google for supporting Lick Observatory, and the UCO staff as well as UCO director Claire Max for their dedicated work scheduling and operating the telescopes of Lick Observatory. G.W.H. acknowledges long-term support from NASA, NSF, Tennessee State University, and the State of Tennessee through its Centers of Excellence program. A.W.H. acknowledges NSF grant 1753582. H.A.K. acknowledges NSF grant 1555095. P.D. gratefully acknowledges support from a National Science Foundation (NSF) Astronomy & Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1903811. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. Finally, we recognize and acknowledge the cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are deeply grateful to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Facilities: Keck:I (HIRES) - , Automated Planet Finder (Levy) - , Lick (Hamilton). - Software: All code, plots, tables, and data used in this paper are available at Data and tables, including the full stellar catalog with {M, R, Teff, log g, [Fe/H]}, as well as APT photometry, are also available in the associated .tar.gz file available online. RVSearch is available at This research makes use of GNU Parallel (Tange 2011). We made use of the following publicly available Python modules: pandas (McKinney 2010), numpy/scipy (van der Walt et al. 2011), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013), Specmatch (Petigura 2015; Yee et al. 2017), Isoclassify (Huber 2017), TheJoker (Price-Whelan et al. 2017), RadVel (Fulton et al. 2018), RVSearch (this work).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Tennessee State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
State of TennesseeUNSPECIFIED
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1903811
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet catalogs; Exoplanet astronomy; Radial velocity
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet catalogs (488); Exoplanet astronomy (486); Radial velocity (1332)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210715-145459591
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Lee J. Rosenthal et al 2021 ApJS 255 8
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109839
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 Jul 2021 17:11
Last Modified:15 Jul 2021 17:11

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