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PENELLOPE: The ESO data legacy program to complement the Hubble UV Legacy Library of Young Stars (ULLYSES). I. Survey presentation and accretion properties of Orion OB1 and σ-Orionis

Manara, C. F. and Frasca, A. and Venuti, L. and Siwak, M. and Herczeg, G. J. and Calvet, N. and Hernandez, J. and Tychoniec, Ł. and Gangi, M. and Alcalá, J. M. and Boffin, H. M. J. and Nisini, B. and Robberto, M. and Briceno, C. and Campbell-White, J. and Sicilia-Aguilar, A. and McGinnis, P. and Fedele, D. and Kóspál, Á. and Ábrahám, P. and Alonso-Santiago, J. and Antoniucci, S. and Arulanantham, N. and Bacciotti, F. and Banzatti, A. and Beccari, G. and Benisty, M. and Biazzo, K. and Bouvier, J. and Cabrit, S. and Caratti o Garatti, A. and Coffey, D. and Covino, E. and Dougados, C. and Eislöffel, J. and Ercolano, B. and Espaillat, C. C. and Erkal, J. and Facchini, S. and Fang, M. and Fiorellino, E. and Fischer, W. J. and France, K. and Gameiro, J. F. and Garcia Lopez, R. and Giannini, T. and Ginski, C. and Grankin, K. and Günther, H. M. and Hartmann, L. and Hillenbrand, L. A. and Hussain, G. A. J. and James, M. M. and Koutoulaki, M. and Lodato, G. and Maucó, K. and Mendigutía, I. and Mentel, R. and Miotello, A. and Oudmaijer, R. D. and Rigliaco, E. and Rosotti, G. P. and Sanchis, E. and Schneider, P. C. and Spina, L. and Stelzer, B. and Testi, L. and Thanathibodee, T. and Vink, J. S. and Walter, F. M. and Williams, J. P. and Zsidi, G. (2021) PENELLOPE: The ESO data legacy program to complement the Hubble UV Legacy Library of Young Stars (ULLYSES). I. Survey presentation and accretion properties of Orion OB1 and σ-Orionis. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 650 . Art. No. A196. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202140639.

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The evolution of young stars and disks is driven by the interplay of several processes, notably the accretion and ejection of material. These processes, critical to correctly describe the conditions of planet formation, are best probed spectroscopically. Between 2020 and 2022, about 500orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are being devoted in to the ULLYSES public survey of about 70 low-mass (M⋆ ≤ 2 M⊙) young (age < 10 Myr) stars at UV wavelengths. Here, we present the PENELLOPE Large Program carried out with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) with the aim of acquiring, contemporaneously to the HST, optical ESPRESSO/UVES high-resolution spectra for the purpose of investigating the kinematics of the emitting gas, along with UV-to-NIR X-shooter medium-resolution flux-calibrated spectra to provide the fundamental parameters that HST data alone cannot provide, such as extinction and stellar properties. The data obtained by PENELLOPE have no proprietary time and the fully reduced spectra are being made available to the whole community. Here, we describe the data and the first scientific analysis of the accretion properties for the sample of 13 targets located in the Orion OB1 association and in the σ-Orionis cluster, observed in November–December 2020. We find that the accretion rates are in line with those observed previously in similarly young star-forming regions, with a variability on a timescale of days (≲3). The comparison of the fits to the continuum excess emission obtained with a slab model on the X-shooter spectra and the HST/STIS spectra shows a shortcoming in the X-shooter estimates of ≲10%, which is well within the assumed uncertainty. Its origin can be either due to an erroneous UV extinction curve or to the simplicity of the modeling and, thus, this question will form the basis of the investigation undertaken over the course of the PENELLOPE program. The combined ULLYSES and PENELLOPE data will be key in attaining a better understanding of the accretion and ejection mechanisms in young stars.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Manara, C. F.0000-0003-3562-262X
Frasca, A.0000-0002-0474-0896
Venuti, L.0000-0002-4115-0318
Siwak, M.0000-0001-5018-3560
Herczeg, G. J.0000-0002-7154-6065
Calvet, N.0000-0002-3950-5386
Hernandez, J.0000-0001-9797-5661
Gangi, M.0000-0002-8364-7795
Alcalá, J. M.0000-0001-8657-095X
Boffin, H. M. J.0000-0002-9486-4840
Nisini, B.0000-0002-9190-0113
Robberto, M.0000-0002-9573-3199
Briceno, C.0000-0001-7124-4094
Sicilia-Aguilar, A.0000-0002-8421-0851
McGinnis, P.0000-0001-7476-7253
Kóspál, Á.0000-0001-7157-6275
Additional Information:© ESO 2021. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 23 February 2021; Accepted 22 March 2021; Published online 29 June 2021. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programme 106.20Z8. We thank the referee for the constructive report. We thank the ESO support staff for the help in the preparation of the observations, in the scheduling, and for carrying out the observations at Paranal. We also thank the ESO staff, in particular John Pritchard and Lodovico Coccato, for implementing the Molecfit workflow for ESPRESSO and making it available to us. We thank Antonella Natta for insightful discussions. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, retrieved from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This work is supported in part by the ODYSSEUS team (HST AR-16129), This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 823823 (DUSTBUSTERS). This research received financial support from the project PRIN-INAF-MAINSTREAM “Protoplanetary disks seen through the eyes of new-generation instruments” (CUPC54I19000600005) and PRIN-INAF 2019 “Spectroscopically Tracing the Disk Dispersal Evolution”. This work was partly supported by the Deutsche Forschungs-Gemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) – Ref no. FOR 2634/1 TE 1024/1-1. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. JCW and ASA are supported by the STFC grant number ST/S000399/1 (“The Planet-Disk Connection: Accretion, Disk Structure, and Planet Formation”). ACG and PMG acknowledge funding from the European Research Council under Advanced Grant No. 743029, Ejection, Accretion Structures in YSOs (EASY). BE acknowledges support from the DFG Research Unit “Transition Disks” (FOR 2634/1, ER 685/8-1) and from the DFG cluster of excellence Origin and Structure of the Universe ( R.G.L. acknowledges support by Science Foundation Ireland under Grant No. 18/SIRG/5597. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 716155 (SACCRED). L.V. acknowledges support by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Ames Research Center, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA. G.R. acknowledges support from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO, program number 016.Veni.192.233) and from an STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowship (grant number ST/T003855/1). J.H. acknowledges support from the National Research Council of México (CONACyT) project No. 86372 and the PAPIIT UNAM project IA102921.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
Marie Curie Fellowship823823
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)CUPC54I19000600005
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)FOR 2634/1 TE 1024/1-1
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S000399/1
European Research Council (ERC)743029
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)FOR 2634/1 ER 685/8-1
Science Foundation, Ireland18/SIRG/5597
European Research Council (ERC)716155
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)016.Veni.192.233
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/T003855/1
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)86372
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)IA102921
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210720-201939380
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:PENELLOPE: The ESO data legacy program to complement the Hubble UV Legacy Library of Young Stars (ULLYSES) - I. Survey presentation and accretion properties of Orion OB1 and σ-Orionis. C. F. Manara, A. Frasca, L. Venuti, M. Siwak, G. J. Herczeg, N. Calvet, J. Hernandez, Ł. Tychoniec, M. Gangi, J. M. Alcalá, H. M. J. Boffin, B. Nisini, M. Robberto, C. Briceno, J. Campbell-White, A. Sicilia-Aguilar, P. McGinnis, D. Fedele, Á. Kóspál, P. Ábrahám, J. Alonso-Santiago, S. Antoniucci, N. Arulanantham, F. Bacciotti, A. Banzatti, G. Beccari, M. Benisty, K. Biazzo, J. Bouvier, S. Cabrit, A. Caratti o Garatti, D. Coffey, E. Covino, C. Dougados, J. Eislöffel, B. Ercolano, C. C. Espaillat, J. Erkal, S. Facchini, M. Fang, E. Fiorellino, W. J. Fischer, K. France, J. F. Gameiro, R. Garcia Lopez, T. Giannini, C. Ginski, K. Grankin, H. M. Günther, L. Hartmann, L. A. Hillenbrand, G. A. J. Hussain, M. M. James, M. Koutoulaki, G. Lodato, K. Maucó, I. Mendigutía, R. Mentel, A. Miotello, R. D. Oudmaijer, E. Rigliaco, G. P. Rosotti, E. Sanchis, P. C. Schneider, L. Spina, B. Stelzer, L. Testi, T. Thanathibodee, J. S. Vink, F. M. Walter, J. P. Williams and G. Zsidi. A&A, 650 (2021) A196; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109938
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:21 Jul 2021 16:21
Last Modified:21 Jul 2021 16:21

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