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On the Existence of the Plateau Emission in High-energy Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves Observed by Fermi-LAT

Dainotti, M. G. and Omodei, N. and Srinivasaragavan, G. P. and Vianello, G. and Willingale, R. and O’Brien, P. and Nagataki, S. and Petrosian, V. and Nuygen, Z. and Hernandez, X. and Axelsson, M. and Bissaldi, E. and Longo, F. (2021) On the Existence of the Plateau Emission in High-energy Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves Observed by Fermi-LAT. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 255 (1). Art. No. 13. ISSN 0067-0049. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/abfe17.

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The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) shows long-lasting high-energy emission in many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), similar to X-ray afterglows observed by the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory (Swift). Some LAT light curves (LCs) show a late-time flattening reminiscent of X-ray plateaus. We explore the presence of plateaus in LAT temporally extended emission analyzing GRBs from the second Fermi-LAT GRB Catalog from 2008 to 2016 May with known redshifts, and check whether they follow closure relations corresponding to four distinct astrophysical environments predicted by the external forward shock model. We find that three LCs can be fit by the same phenomenological model used to fit X-ray plateaus and show tentative evidence for the existence of plateaus in their high-energy extended emission. The most favorable scenario is a slow-cooling regime, whereas the preferred density profile for each GRBs varies from a constant-density interstellar medium to an r⁻² wind environment. We also compare the end time of the plateaus in γ-rays and X-rays using a statistical comparison with 222 Swift GRBs with plateaus and known redshifts from 2005 January to 2019 August. Within this comparison, the case of GRB 090510 shows an indication of chromaticity at the end time of the plateau. Finally, we update the 3D fundamental plane relation among the rest-frame end time of the plateau, its correspondent luminosity, and the peak prompt luminosity for 222 GRBs observed by Swift. We find that these three LAT GRBs follow this relation.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Dainotti, M. G.0000-0003-4442-8546
Omodei, N.0000-0002-5448-7577
Vianello, G.0000-0002-2553-0839
Nagataki, S.0000-0002-7025-284X
Petrosian, V.0000-0002-2670-8942
Nuygen, Z.0000-0001-9219-3505
Hernandez, X.0000-0002-7778-6457
Axelsson, M.0000-0003-4378-8785
Bissaldi, E.0000-0001-9935-8106
Longo, F.0000-0003-2501-2270
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 September 15; revised 2021 April 21; accepted 2021 May 2; published 2021 July 9. M.G.D. is grateful to funding from the European Union FP7 scheme and the Marie Curie Outgoing Fellowship, the research leading to these results has been funded under contract number N 626267. M.G.D. is also grateful to MINIATURA2 No. 2018/02/X/ST9/03673: and the American Astronomical Society Chretienne Fellowship. M.G.D. is also grateful to have been hosted in 2019 January and February by S. Nagataki with the support of "RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research." S.N. is grateful to the Pioneering Program of RIKEN for Evolution of Matter in the Universe(r-EMU)" S.N. also acknowledges the JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research "KAKENHI" (A) with grant No. JP19H00693. G.S. is grateful for the support of the United States Department of Energy in funding the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. X.H. acknowledges financial assistance from UNAM DGAPA grant, IN106220, and CONACYT. M.A. gratefully acknowledges funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 734303 (NEWS). P.O.B. acknowledges support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. This work made use of data supplied by the UK Swift Science Data Centre at the University of Leicester. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat á l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucléare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K.A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, and the Swedish National Space Agency in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in France. This work was performed in part under DOE contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Marie Curie Fellowship626267
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego (MNiSW)2018/02/X/ST9/03673
American Astronomical SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19H00693
Dirección General Asuntos del Personal Académico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM)IN106220
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)UNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie Fellowship734303
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
Subject Keywords:Gamma-ray bursts
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Gamma-ray bursts (629)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210721-185843352
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:M. G. Dainotti et al 2021 ApJS 255 13
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109955
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:26 Jul 2021 22:19
Last Modified:26 Jul 2021 22:19

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