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TOI-2076 and TOI-1807: Two Young, Comoving Planetary Systems within 50 pc Identified by TESS that are Ideal Candidates for Further Follow Up

Hedges, Christina and Hughes, Alex and Zhou, George and David, Trevor J. and Becker, Juliette and Giacalone, Steven and Vanderburg, Andrew and Rodriguez, Joseph E. and Bieryla, Allyson and Wirth, Christopher and Atherton, Shaun and Fetherolf, Tara and Collins, Karen A. and Price-Whelan, Adrian M. and Bedell, Megan and Quinn, Samuel N. and Gan, Tianjun and Ricker, George R. and Latham, David W. and Vanderspek, Roland K. and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Kielkopf, John F. and Schwarz, Richard P. and Dressing, Courtney D. and Gonzales, Erica J. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Matthews, Elisabeth C. and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Furlan, Elise and Gnilka, Crystal L. and Howell, Steve B. and Lester, Kathryn V. and Scott, Nicholas J. and Feliz, Dax L. and Lund, Michael B. and Siverd, Robert J. and Stevens, Daniel J. and Narita, N. and Fukui, A. and Murgas, F. and Palle, Enric and Sutton, Phil J. and Stassun, Keivan G. and Bouma, Luke G. and Vezie, Michael and Villaseñor, Jesus Noel and Quintana, Elisa V. and Smith, Jeffrey C. (2021) TOI-2076 and TOI-1807: Two Young, Comoving Planetary Systems within 50 pc Identified by TESS that are Ideal Candidates for Further Follow Up. Astronomical Journal, 162 (2). Art. No. 54. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac06cd. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210721-221837708

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Abstract

We report the discovery of two planetary systems around comoving stars: TOI-2076 (TIC 27491137) and TOI-1807 (TIC 180695581). TOI-2076 is a nearby (41.9 pc) multiplanetary system orbiting a young (204 ± 50 Myr), bright (K = 7.115 in TIC v8.1) start. TOI-1807 hosts a single transiting planet and is similarly nearby (42.58 pc), similarly young (180 ± 40 Myr), and bright. Both targets exhibit significant, periodic variability due to starspots, characteristic of their young ages. Using photometric data collected by TESS we identify three transiting planets around TOI-2076 with radii of R_b = 3.3 ± 0.04 R⊕, R_c = 4.4 ± 0.05 R⊕, and R_d = 4.1 ± 0.07 R⊕. Planet TOI-2076b has a period of P_b = 10.356 days. For both TOI-2076c and d, TESS observed only two transits, separated by a 2 yr interval in which no data were collected, preventing a unique period determination. A range of long periods (<17 days) are consistent with the data. We identify a short-period planet around TOI-1807 with a radius of R_b = 1.8 ± 0.04 R⊕ and a period of P_b = 0.549 days. Their close proximity, and bright, cool host stars, and young ages make these planets excellent candidates for follow up. TOI-1807b is one of the best-known small (R < 2 R⊕) planets for characterization via eclipse spectroscopy and phase curves with JWST. TOI-1807b is the youngest ultra-short-period planet discovered to date, providing valuable constraints on formation timescales of short-period planets. Given the rarity of young planets, particularly in multiple-planet systems, these planets present an unprecedented opportunity to study and compare exoplanet formation, and young planet atmospheres, at a crucial transition age for formation theory.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ac06cdDOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Hedges, Christina0000-0002-3385-8391
Zhou, George0000-0002-4891-3517
David, Trevor J.0000-0001-6534-6246
Becker, Juliette0000-0002-7733-4522
Giacalone, Steven0000-0002-8965-3969
Vanderburg, Andrew0000-0001-7246-5438
Rodriguez, Joseph E.0000-0001-8812-0565
Bieryla, Allyson0000-0001-6637-5401
Fetherolf, Tara0000-0002-3551-279X
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Price-Whelan, Adrian M.0000-0003-0872-7098
Bedell, Megan0000-0001-9907-7742
Quinn, Samuel N.0000-0002-8964-8377
Gan, Tianjun0000-0002-4503-9705
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Vanderspek, Roland K.0000-0001-6763-6562
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Kielkopf, John F.0000-0003-0497-2651
Schwarz, Richard P.0000-0001-8227-1020
Dressing, Courtney D.0000-0001-8189-0233
Gonzales, Erica J.0000-0002-9329-2190
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Matthews, Elisabeth C.0000-0003-0593-1560
Jensen, Eric L. N.0000-0002-4625-7333
Furlan, Elise0000-0001-9800-6248
Howell, Steve B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Lester, Kathryn V.0000-0002-9903-9911
Scott, Nicholas J.0000-0003-1038-9702
Feliz, Dax L.0000-0002-2457-7889
Lund, Michael B.0000-0003-2527-1598
Siverd, Robert J.0000-0001-5016-3359
Stevens, Daniel J.0000-0002-5951-8328
Narita, N.0000-0001-8511-2981
Fukui, A.0000-0002-4909-5763
Murgas, F.0000-0001-9087-1245
Palle, Enric0000-0003-0987-1593
Stassun, Keivan G.0000-0002-3481-9052
Bouma, Luke G.0000-0002-0514-5538
Quintana, Elisa V.0000-0003-1309-2904
Smith, Jeffrey C.0000-0002-6148-7903
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 April 29; revised 2021 May 27; accepted 2021 May 29; published 2021 July 12. This research made use of lightkurve, a Python package for Kepler and TESS data analysis (Lightkurve Collaboration et al. 2018). This research made use of Astropy, 52 a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018). This research made use of exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2020) and its dependencies (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018; Kipping 2013a; Salvatier et al. 2016; Theano Development Team 2016; Luger et al. 2019; Agol et al. 2020). This paper includes data collected with the TESS mission, obtained from the MAST data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Funding for the TESS mission is provided by the NASA Explorer Program. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. The National Geographic Society—Palomar Observatory Sky Atlas (POSS I) was made by the California Institute of Technology with grants from the National Geographic Society. The Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS II) was made by the California Institute of Technology with funds from the National Science Foundation, the National Geographic Society, the Sloan Foundation, the Samuel Oschin Foundation, and the Eastman Kodak Corporation. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. Funding for this work for C.H. is provided by grant No. 80NSSC20K0874, through NASA ROSES. T.J.D. acknowledges support for this work from the TESS Guest Investigator program under NASA grant 80NSSC20K0631. This work is partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JP18H01265 and JP18H05439, and JST PRESTO grant No. JPMJPR1775, and a University Research Support Grant from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument 'Alopeke. 'Alopeke was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. 'Alopeke was mounted on the Gemini North (and/or South) telescope of the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF's OIR Lab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigaciòn y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologìa e Innovaciòn (Argentina), Ministèrio da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This article is based on observations made with the MuSCAT2 instrument, developed by ABC, at Telescopio Carlos Sánchez operated on the island of Tenerife by the IAC in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. This paper is partially based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. D.J.S. is supported as an Eberly Research Fellow by the Eberly College of Science at the Pennsylvania State University. The Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds is supported by the Pennsylvania State University, the Eberly College of Science, and the Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium. J.N.W. thanks the Heising-Simons Foundation for support. Facilities: TESS - , LCOGT - , Gemini Observatory - , Lick Observatory - , FLWO. - Software: lightkurve (Lightkurve Collaboration et al. 2018), exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2020), astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017), TAPIR (Jensen 2013), triceratops (Giacalone et al. 2021), vespa (Morton 2015), vetting, pyia (Price-Whelan & Brammer 2020).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
National Geographic SocietyUNSPECIFIED
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Samuel Oschin FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Eastman Kodak CorporationUNSPECIFIED
NASA80NSSC20K0874
NASA80NSSC20K0631
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H01265
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Eberly College of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Pennsylvania State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Pennsylvania Space Grant ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanets; Transits; Time series analysis
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Christina Hedges et al 2021 AJ 162 54
DOI:10.3847/1538-3881/ac06cd
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210721-221837708
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210721-221837708
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:109964
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:26 Jul 2021 22:45
Last Modified:26 Jul 2021 22:45

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