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Event Horizon Telescope observations of the jet launching and collimation in Centaurus A

Janssen, Michael and Falcke, Heino and Kadler, Matthias and Ros, Eduardo and Wielgus, Maciek and Akiyama, Kazunori and Baloković, Mislav and Blackburn, Lindy and Bouman, Katherine L. and Chael, Andrew and Chan, Chi-kwan and Chatterjee, Koushik and Davelaar, Jordy and Edwards, Philip G. and Fromm, Christian M. and Gómez, José L. and Goddi, Ciriaco and Issaoun, Sara and Johnson, Michael D. and Kim, Junhan and Koay, Jun Yi and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Liu, Jun and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Markoff, Sera and Markowitz, Alex and Marrone, Daniel P. and Mizuno, Yosuke and Müller, Cornelia and Ni, Chunchong and Pesce, Dominic W. and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Roelofs, Freek and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and van Bemmel, Ilse and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Algaba, Juan Carlos and Anantua, Richard and Asada, Keiichi and Azulay, Rebecca and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Ball, David and Barrett, John and Benson, Bradford A. and Bintley, Dan and Blundell, Raymond and Boland, Wilfred and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Boyce, Hope and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broderick, Avery E. and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chatterjee, Shami and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Chesler, Paul M. and Cho, Ilje and Christian, Pierre and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crawford, Thomas M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro and Cui, Yuzhu and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Dexter, Jason and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Eatough, Ralph P. and Farah, Joseph and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Ford, H. Alyson and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Friberg, Per and Fuentes, Antonio and Galison, Peter and Gammie, Charles F. and García, Roberto and Gelles, Zachary and Gentaz, Olivier and Georgiev, Boris and Gold, Roman and Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I. and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hada, Kazuhiro and Haggard, Daryl and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Himwich, Elizabeth and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and Hughes, David H. and Ikeda, Shiro and Inoue, Makoto and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra and Jorstad, Svetlana and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Dong-Jin and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Jongsoo and Kino, Motoki and Kofuji, Yutaro and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lauer, Tod R. and Lee, Sang-Sung and Levis, Aviad and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Lico, Rocco and Lindahl, Greg and Liu, Kuo and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Loinard, Laurent and Lonsdale, Colin and Lu, Ru-Sen and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mao, Jirong and Marchili, Nicola and Marscher, Alan P. and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Matsushita, Satoki and Matthews, Lynn D. and Medeiros, Lia and Menten, Karl M. and Mizuno, Izumi and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Musoke, Gibwa and Mejías, Alejandro Mus and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Nathanail, Antonios and Neilsen, Joey and Neri, Roberto and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Nowak, Michael A. and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Ortiz-León, Gisela N. and Oyama, Tomoaki and Özel, Feryal and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Park, Jongho and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Pötzl, Felix M. and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Psaltis, Dimitrios and Pu, Hung-Yi and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ricarte, Angelo and Ripperda, Bart and Rogers, Alan and Rose, Mel and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruszczyk, Chet and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sasada, Mahito and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Sun, He and Tazaki, Fumie and Tetarenko, Alexandra J. and Tiede, Paul and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Torne, Pablo and Trent, Tyler and Traianou, Efthalia and Trippe, Sascha and van Bemmel, Ilse and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Wagner, Jan and Ward-Thompson, Derek and Wardle, John and Weintroub, Jonathan and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wong, George N. and Wu, Qingwen and Yoon, Doosoo and Young, André and Young, Ken and Younsi, Ziri and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zensus, J. Anton and Zhao, Guang-Yao and Zhao, Shan-Shan (2021) Event Horizon Telescope observations of the jet launching and collimation in Centaurus A. Nature Astronomy, 5 (10). pp. 1017-1028. ISSN 2397-3366. doi:10.1038/s41550-021-01417-w. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210729-141343338

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Abstract

Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of active galactic nuclei at millimetre wavelengths have the power to reveal the launching and initial collimation region of extragalactic radio jets, down to 10–100 gravitational radii (r_g ≡ GM/c²) scales in nearby sources. Centaurus A is the closest radio-loud source to Earth. It bridges the gap in mass and accretion rate between the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in Messier 87 and our Galactic Centre. A large southern declination of −43° has, however, prevented VLBI imaging of Centaurus A below a wavelength of 1 cm thus far. Here we show the millimetre VLBI image of the source, which we obtained with the Event Horizon Telescope at 228 GHz. Compared with previous observations, we image the jet of Centaurus A at a tenfold higher frequency and sixteen times sharper resolution and thereby probe sub-lightday structures. We reveal a highly collimated, asymmetrically edge-brightened jet as well as the fainter counterjet. We find that the source structure of Centaurus A resembles the jet in Messier 87 on ~500 r_g scales remarkably well. Furthermore, we identify the location of Centaurus A’s SMBH with respect to its resolved jet core at a wavelength of 1.3 mm and conclude that the source’s event horizon shadow should be visible at terahertz frequencies. This location further supports the universal scale invariance of black holes over a wide range of masses.


Item Type:Article
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https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-021-01417-wDOIArticle
https://rdcu.be/cqNzaPublisherFree ReadCube access
https://almascience.eso.org/alma-dataRelated ItemALMA data portal
https://eventhorizontelescope.org/for-astronomers/dataRelated ItemCalibrated Stokes I VLBI visibility data
https://bitbucket.org/M_Janssen/eht-flux-calibrationRelated ItemCode
https://github.com/sao-eht/eatRelated ItemCode
https://bitbucket.org/M_Janssen/picardRelated ItemCode
https://bitbucket.org/M_Janssen/casaehtRelated ItemCode
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Janssen, Michael0000-0001-8685-6544
Falcke, Heino0000-0002-2526-6724
Kadler, Matthias0000-0001-5606-6154
Ros, Eduardo0000-0001-9503-4892
Wielgus, Maciek0000-0002-8635-4242
Akiyama, Kazunori0000-0002-9475-4254
Baloković, Mislav0000-0003-0476-6647
Blackburn, Lindy0000-0002-9030-642X
Bouman, Katherine L.0000-0003-0077-4367
Chael, Andrew0000-0003-2966-6220
Chan, Chi-kwan0000-0001-6337-6126
Chatterjee, Koushik0000-0002-2825-3590
Davelaar, Jordy0000-0002-2685-2434
Edwards, Philip G.0000-0002-8186-4753
Fromm, Christian M.0000-0002-1827-1656
Gómez, José L.0000-0003-4190-7613
Goddi, Ciriaco0000-0002-2542-7743
Issaoun, Sara0000-0002-5297-921X
Johnson, Michael D.0000-0002-4120-3029
Kim, Junhan0000-0002-4274-9373
Koay, Jun Yi0000-0002-7029-6658
Krichbaum, Thomas P.0000-0002-4892-9586
Liu, Jun0000-0002-7615-7499
Liuzzo, Elisabetta0000-0003-0995-5201
Markoff, Sera0000-0001-9564-0876
Marrone, Daniel P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Mizuno, Yosuke0000-0002-8131-6730
Müller, Cornelia0000-0002-2739-2994
Ni, Chunchong0000-0003-1361-5699
Pesce, Dominic W.0000-0002-5278-9221
Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh0000-0002-9248-086X
Roelofs, Freek0000-0001-5461-3687
Rygl, Kazi L. J.0000-0003-4146-9043
van Bemmel, Ilse0000-0001-5473-2950
Alberdi, Antxon0000-0002-9371-1033
Algaba, Juan Carlos0000-0001-6993-1696
Anantua, Richard0000-0003-3457-7660
Azulay, Rebecca0000-0002-2200-5393
Baczko, Anne-Kathrin0000-0003-3090-3975
Barrett, John0000-0002-9290-0764
Benson, Bradford A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Blundell, Raymond0000-0002-5929-5857
Bower, Geoffrey C.0000-0003-4056-9982
Boyce, Hope0000-0002-6530-5783
Brinkerink, Christiaan D.0000-0002-2322-0749
Brissenden, Roger0000-0002-2556-0894
Britzen, Silke0000-0001-9240-6734
Broderick, Avery E.0000-0002-3351-760X
Bronzwaer, Thomas0000-0003-1151-3971
Byun, Do-Young0000-0003-1157-4109
Carlstrom, John E.0000-0002-2044-7665
Chatterjee, Shami0000-0002-2878-1502
Chen, Ming-Tang0000-0001-6573-3318
Chen, Yongjun0000-0001-5650-6770
Chesler, Paul M.0000-0001-6327-8462
Cho, Ilje0000-0001-6083-7521
Christian, Pierre0000-0001-6820-9941
Conway, John E.0000-0003-2448-9181
Cordes, James M.0000-0002-4049-1882
Crawford, Thomas M.0000-0001-9000-5013
Crew, Geoffrey B.0000-0002-2079-3189
Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro0000-0002-3945-6342
Cui, Yuzhu0000-0001-6311-4345
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia0000-0002-9945-682X
Deane, Roger0000-0003-1027-5043
Dempsey, Jessica0000-0003-1269-9667
Desvignes, Gregory0000-0003-3922-4055
Dexter, Jason0000-0003-3903-0373
Doeleman, Sheperd S.0000-0002-9031-0904
Eatough, Ralph P.0000-0001-6196-4135
Farah, Joseph0000-0003-4914-5625
Fish, Vincent L.0000-0002-7128-9345
Fomalont, Ed0000-0002-9036-2747
Ford, H. Alyson0000-0002-9797-0972
Fraga-Encinas, Raquel0000-0002-5222-1361
Friberg, Per0000-0002-8010-8454
Fuentes, Antonio0000-0002-8773-4933
Galison, Peter0000-0002-6429-3872
Gammie, Charles F.0000-0001-7451-8935
García, Roberto0000-0002-6584-7443
Gelles, Zachary0000-0001-8053-4392
Georgiev, Boris0000-0002-3586-6424
Gold, Roman0000-0003-2492-1966
Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.0000-0001-9395-1670
Gu, Minfeng0000-0002-4455-6946
Gurwell, Mark0000-0003-0685-3621
Hada, Kazuhiro0000-0001-6906-772X
Haggard, Daryl0000-0001-6803-2138
Hesper, Ronald0000-0003-1918-6098
Ho, Luis C.0000-0001-6947-5846
Ho, Paul0000-0002-3412-4306
Honma, Mareki0000-0003-4058-9000
Huang, Chih-Wei L.0000-0001-5641-3953
Huang, Lei0000-0002-1923-227X
Ikeda, Shiro0000-0002-2462-1448
Inoue, Makoto0000-0001-5037-3989
James, David J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Jannuzi, Buell T.0000-0002-1578-6582
Jeter, Britton0000-0003-2847-1712
Jiang, Wu0000-0001-7369-3539
Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra0000-0002-2662-3754
Jorstad, Svetlana0000-0001-6158-1708
Jung, Taehyun0000-0001-7003-8643
Karami, Mansour0000-0001-7387-9333
Karuppusamy, Ramesh0000-0002-5307-2919
Kawashima, Tomohisa0000-0001-8527-0496
Keating, Garrett K.0000-0002-3490-146X
Kettenis, Mark0000-0002-6156-5617
Kim, Dong-Jin0000-0002-7038-2118
Kim, Jae-Young0000-0001-8229-7183
Kim, Jongsoo0000-0002-1229-0426
Kino, Motoki0000-0002-2709-7338
Koyama, Shoko0000-0002-3723-3372
Kramer, Michael0000-0002-4175-2271
Kramer, Carsten0000-0002-4908-4925
Kuo, Cheng-Yu0000-0001-6211-5581
Lauer, Tod R.0000-0003-3234-7247
Lee, Sang-Sung0000-0002-6269-594X
Levis, Aviad0000-0001-7307-632X
Li, Yan-Rong0000-0001-5841-9179
Li, Zhiyuan0000-0003-0355-6437
Lindqvist, Michael0000-0002-3669-0715
Lico, Rocco0000-0001-7361-2460
Lindahl, Greg0000-0002-6100-4772
Liu, Kuo0000-0002-2953-7376
Lo, Wen-Ping0000-0003-1869-2503
Lobanov, Andrei P.0000-0003-1622-1484
Loinard, Laurent0000-0002-5635-3345
Lonsdale, Colin0000-0003-4062-4654
Lu, Ru-Sen0000-0002-7692-7967
MacDonald, Nicholas R.0000-0002-6684-8691
Mao, Jirong0000-0002-7077-7195
Marchili, Nicola0000-0002-5523-7588
Marscher, Alan P.0000-0001-7396-3332
Martí-Vidal, Iván0000-0003-3708-9611
Matsushita, Satoki0000-0002-2127-7880
Matthews, Lynn D.0000-0002-3728-8082
Medeiros, Lia0000-0003-2342-6728
Menten, Karl M.0000-0001-6459-0669
Mizuno, Izumi0000-0002-7210-6264
Moran, James M.0000-0002-3882-4414
Moriyama, Kotaro0000-0003-1364-3761
Moscibrodzka, Monika0000-0002-4661-6332
Musoke, Gibwa0000-0003-1984-189X
Mejías, Alejandro Mus0000-0003-0329-6874
Nagai, Hiroshi0000-0003-0292-3645
Nagar, Neil M.0000-0001-6920-662X
Nakamura, Masanori0000-0001-6081-2420
Narayan, Ramesh0000-0002-1919-2730
Narayanan, Gopal0000-0002-4723-6569
Natarajan, Iniyan0000-0001-8242-4373
Neilsen, Joey0000-0002-8247-786X
Neri, Roberto0000-0002-7176-4046
Noutsos, Aristeidis0000-0002-4151-3860
Nowak, Michael A.0000-0001-6923-1315
Okino, Hiroki0000-0003-3779-2016
Olivares, Héctor0000-0001-6833-7580
Ortiz-León, Gisela N.0000-0002-2863-676X
Oyama, Tomoaki0000-0003-4046-2923
Palumbo, Daniel C. M.0000-0002-7179-3816
Park, Jongho0000-0001-6558-9053
Pen, Ue-Li0000-0003-2155-9578
Plambeck, Richard0000-0001-6765-9609
Porth, Oliver0000-0002-4584-2557
Pötzl, Felix M.0000-0002-6579-8311
Prather, Ben0000-0002-0393-7734
Preciado-López, Jorge A.0000-0002-4146-0113
Psaltis, Dimitrios0000-0003-4058-2837
Pu, Hung-Yi0000-0001-9270-8812
Rao, Ramprasad0000-0002-1407-7944
Rawlings, Mark G.0000-0002-6529-202X
Raymond, Alexander W.0000-0002-5779-4767
Rezzolla, Luciano0000-0002-1330-7103
Ricarte, Angelo0000-0001-5287-0452
Ripperda, Bart0000-0002-7301-3908
Rogers, Alan0000-0003-1941-7458
Rose, Mel0000-0002-2016-8746
Rottmann, Helge0000-0003-1799-8228
Roy, Alan L.0000-0002-1931-0135
Ruszczyk, Chet0000-0001-7278-9707
Sánchez, Salvador0000-0002-8042-5951
Sánchez-Arguelles, David0000-0002-7344-9920
Sasada, Mahito0000-0001-5946-9960
Savolainen, Tuomas0000-0001-6214-1085
Schuster, Karl-Friedrich0000-0003-2890-9454
Shao, Lijing0000-0002-1334-8853
Shen, Zhiqiang0000-0003-3540-8746
Small, Des0000-0003-3723-5404
Sohn, Bong Won0000-0002-4148-8378
SooHoo, Jason0000-0003-1938-0720
Sun, He0000-0003-1526-6787
Tazaki, Fumie0000-0003-0236-0600
Tetarenko, Alexandra J.0000-0003-3906-4354
Tiede, Paul0000-0003-3826-5648
Tilanus, Remo P. J.0000-0002-6514-553X
Titus, Michael0000-0002-3423-4505
Torne, Pablo0000-0001-8700-6058
Traianou, Efthalia0000-0002-1209-6500
Trippe, Sascha0000-0003-0465-1559
van Bemmel, Ilse0000-0001-5473-2950
van Langevelde, Huib Jan0000-0002-0230-5946
van Rossum, Daniel R.0000-0001-7772-6131
Wagner, Jan0000-0003-1105-6109
Ward-Thompson, Derek0000-0003-1140-2761
Wardle, John0000-0002-8960-2942
Weintroub, Jonathan0000-0002-4603-5204
Wex, Norbert0000-0003-4058-2837
Wharton, Robert0000-0002-7416-5209
Wong, George N.0000-0001-6952-2147
Wu, Qingwen0000-0003-4773-4987
Yoon, Doosoo0000-0001-8694-8166
Young, André0000-0003-0000-2682
Young, Ken0000-0002-3666-4920
Younsi, Ziri0000-0001-9283-1191
Yuan, Feng0000-0003-3564-6437
Yuan, Ye-Fei0000-0002-7330-4756
Zensus, J. Anton0000-0001-7470-3321
Zhao, Guang-Yao0000-0002-4417-1659
Zhao, Shan-Shan0000-0002-9774-3606
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 22 January 2021; Accepted 02 June 2021; Published 19 July 2021. A.C. is an Einstein Fellow of the NASA Hubble Fellowship Program. J.P is an EACOA fellow. Z.Y. is a UKRI Stephen Hawking Fellow. We thank the following organizations and programmes: the Academy of Finland (projects 274477, 284495, 312496, 315721); the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID), Chile via NCN19_058 (TITANs) and Fondecyt 3190878; the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung; an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship; Allegro, the European ALMA Regional Centre node in the Netherlands, the NL astronomy research network NOVA and the astronomy institutes of the University of Amsterdam, Leiden University and Radboud University; the Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, through a grant (60477) from the John Templeton Foundation; the China Scholarship Council; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico, projects U0004-246083, U0004-259839, F0003-272050, M0037-279006, F0003-281692, 104497, 275201, 263356, 57265507); the Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute; Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (DGAPA-UNAM, projects IN112417 and IN112820); the EACOA Fellowship of the East Asia Core Observatories Association; the European Research Council Synergy Grant “BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes” (grant 610058); the Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant APOSTD/2018/177 and GenT Program (project CIDEGENT/2018/021); MICINN Research Project PID2019-108995GB-C22; the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grants GBMF- 3561, GBMF-5278); the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV; the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne; Joint Princeton/Flatiron and Joint Columbia/Flatiron Postdoctoral Fellowships, research at the Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation; the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Research Fellowship (JP17J08829); the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, grants QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJSSW- SYS008, ZDBS-LY-SLH011). We further thank the Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG); the Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG and the CAS; the MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (grants 18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, JP19H01943, 25120007); the Malaysian Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) FRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6; the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan (105- 2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119- M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, 107-2119-M-110-005, 108-2112-M-001-048, and 109-2124-M-001-005); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC20K1567, NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant 80NSSC20K0527, NASA grant NNX17AL82G, and Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51431.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555, and NASA NuSTAR award 80NSSC20K0645); the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan; the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702); the National Science Foundation (NSF, grants AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST-1337663, AST-1440254, AST-1555365, AST-1615796, AST-1715061, AST-1716327, AST-1716536, OISE-1743747, AST-1816420, AST-1903847, AST-1935980, AST-2034306); the Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11933007, 11991052, 11991053); a fellowship of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M671266); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, including a Discovery Grant and the NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program); the National Research Foundation of Korea (the Global PhD Fellowship Grant: grants 2014H1A2A1018695, NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015- R1D1A1A01056807, the Korea Research Fellowship Program: NRF-2015H1D3A1066561, Basic Research Support Grant 2019R1F1A1059721); the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award (grant 639.043.513) and Spinoza Prize SPI 78-409; the New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship awarded by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Innovation (DSI) of South Africa; the South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Innovation and National Research Foundation; the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure, for the provisioning of its facilities/observational support (OSO receives funding through the Swedish Research Council under grant 2017-00648) the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science); the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (grants PGC2018-098915-B-C21, AYA2016-80889-P, PID2019-108995GB-C21); the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the ‘Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa’ award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017- 0709); the Toray Science Foundation; the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucía (grant P18-FR-1769), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (grant 2019AEP112); the US Department of Energy (US DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the US DOE (Contract 89233218CNA000001); the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 730562 RadioNet; ALMA North America Development Fund; the Academia Sinica; Chandra TM6- 17006X and DD7-18089X; the GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project CIDEGENT/2018/021. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), supported by NSF grant ACI-1548562, and CyVerse, supported by NSF grants DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, and DBI-1743442. XSEDE Stampede2 resource at TACC was allocated through TG-AST170024 and TG-AST080026N. XSEDE JetStream resource at PTI and TACC was allocated through AST170028. The simulations were performed in part on the SuperMUC cluster at the LRZ in Garching, on the LOEWE cluster in CSC in Frankfurt, and on the HazelHen cluster at the HLRS in Stuttgart. This research was enabled in part by support provided by Compute Ontario (http://computeontario.ca), Calcul Quebec (http://www.calculquebec.ca) and Compute Canada (http://www.computecanada.ca). We thank the staff at the participating observatories, correlation centres, and institutions for their enthusiastic support. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01198.V. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO; Europe, representing its member states), NSF, and National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, together with National Research Council (Canada), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST; Taiwan), Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA; Taiwan), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI; Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)/NRAO, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Germany), ESO, and the Onsala Space Observatory (Sweden). The SMA is a joint project between the SAO and ASIAA and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The JCMT is operated by the East Asian Observatory on behalf of the NAOJ, ASIAA, and KASI, as well as the Ministry of Finance of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Key R&D Program (No. 2017YFA0402700) of China. Additional funding support for the JCMT is provided by the Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) and participating universities in the UK and Canada. The LMT is a project operated by the Instituto Nacional de Astrófisica, Óptica, y Electrónica (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (USA), with financial support from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología and the National Science Foundation. The IRAM 30-m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain is operated by IRAM and supported by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), MPG (Max-Planck- Gesellschaft, Germany) and IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Spain). The SMT is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory, a part of the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona, with financial support of operations from the State of Arizona and financial support for instrumentation development from the NSF. The SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR- 1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. The SPT hydrogen maser was provided on loan from the GLT, courtesy of ASIAA. The EHTC has received generous donations of FPGA chips from Xilinx Inc., under the Xilinx University Program. The EHTC has benefited from technology shared under open-source license by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). The EHT project is grateful to T4Science and Microsemi for their assistance with Hydrogen Masers. This research has made use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. We gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the extended staff of the ALMA, both from the inception of the ALMA Phasing Project through the observational campaigns of 2017 and 2018. We would like to thank A. Deller and W. Brisken for EHT-specific support with the use of DiFX. We acknowledge the significance that Maunakea, where the SMA and JCMT EHT stations are located, has for the indigenous Hawaiian people. The grants listed above collectively fund the Event Horizon Telescope project. Data availability: The ALMA raw visibility data can be retrieved from the ALMA data portal under the project code 2016.1.01198.V. The calibrated Stokes I VLBI visibility data of Centaurus A can be obtained from a DOI listed under https://eventhorizontelescope.org/for-astronomers/data with the code 2021-D03-01. Image FITS files and scripts to reproduce the plots are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Code availability: Antenna gains that enter the SEFDs were computed with https://bitbucket.org/M_Janssen/eht-flux-calibration. The SEFDs were applied with the https://github.com/sao-eht/eat code, which also contains the EHT-HOPS pipeline. rPICARD is hosted on https://bitbucket.org/M_Janssen/picard. Configuration and run files, which make use of self-contained Docker images are at https://bitbucket.org/M_Janssen/casaeht. This work is based on the ‘ER6’ data production scripts, for which the 30e6ca14fb50275013c668285a3b476f9bc85436_91da63236db34f3a31b5309b18ac159128f28a35 image was used. The eht-imaging software is hosted on https://github.com/achael/eht-imaging. SYMBA is at https://bitbucket.org/M_Janssen/symba. The docker image used here is tagged as dec65699ccc0acdc6e6ba8f218d6724537fc613a and can be found on https://hub.docker.com/r/mjanssen2308/symba. Author Contributions: K.A., L.B., C.-k.C., S.I., M.J., J.K., J.Y.K., T.P.K., J.L., E.L., D.P.M., V.R., K.L.J.R., I.V.B. and M.W. have worked on the calibration of the EHT data. K.A., K.L.B., A.C., J.L.G., S.I., M.J., M.D.J., C.N., D.W.P., F.R. and M.W. have worked on the image reconstruction. M.B., K.C., J.D., P.G.E., H.F., C.M.F., C.G., M.J., M.K., Y.M., A.M., S.M., E.R. and M.W. have worked on the interpretation of the results. M.J., M.K., C.M. and E.R. have coordinated the research. The Event Horizon Telescope collaboration as a whole has enabled this research by building the EHT instrument and producing the tools and knowledge for the reduction, analysis and interpretation of the data. The authors declare no competing interests. Peer review information:  Nature Astronomy thanks Denise Gabuzda, Talvikki Hovatta and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
East Asian Core Observatories Association (EACOA)UNSPECIFIED
UK Research and InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Academy of Finland274477
Academy of Finland284495
Academy of Finland312496
Academy of Finland315721
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)NCN19_058
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)3190878
Alexander von Humboldt StiftungUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
AllegroUNSPECIFIED
ALMA Regional CentreUNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA)UNSPECIFIED
University of AmsterdamUNSPECIFIED
Leiden UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Radboud UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton Foundation60477
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)U0004-246083
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)U0004-259839
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)F0003-272050
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)M0037-279006
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)F0003-281692
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)104497
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)275201
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)263356
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)57265507
Delaney Family John A. Wheeler ChairUNSPECIFIED
Perimeter InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112417
Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoIN112820
European Research Council (ERC)610058
Generalitat ValencianaAPOSTD/2018/177
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-108995GB-C22
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-3561
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF-5278
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Flatiron InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Columbia UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17J08829
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJ-SSW-SLH057
Chinese Academy of SciencesQYZDJSSW-SYS008
Chinese Academy of SciencesZDBS-LY-SLH011
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18KK0090
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K13594
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18K03656
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H03721
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18K03709
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01245
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19H01943
Malaysian Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS)FRGS/1/2019/STG02/UM/02/6
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)105-2112-M-001-025-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2112-M-001-011
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)106-2119-M-001-027
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-017
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-001-020
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)107-2119-M-110-005
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)108-2112-M-001-048
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)109-2124-M-001-005
NASA80NSSC20K1567
NASA80NSSC20K0527
NASANNX17AL82G
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51431.001-A
NASANAS5-26555
NASA80NSSC20K0645
National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS)UNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400704
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
NSFAST-0096454
NSFAST-0352953
NSFAST-0521233
NSFAST-0705062
NSFAST-0905844
NSFAST-0922984
NSFAST-1126433
NSFAST-1140030
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144085
NSFAST-1207704
NSFAST-1207730
NSFAST-1207752
NSFMRI-1228509
NSFOPP-1248097
NSFAST-1310896
NSFAST-1337663
NSFAST-1440254
NSFAST-1555365
NSFAST-1615796
NSFAST-1715061
NSFAST-1716327
NSFAST-1716536
NSFOISE-1743747
NSFAST-1816420
NSFAST-1903847
NSFAST-1935980
NSFAST-2034306
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573051
National Natural Science Foundation of China11633006
National Natural Science Foundation of China11650110427
National Natural Science Foundation of China10625314
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
National Natural Science Foundation of China11725312
National Natural Science Foundation of China11933007
National Natural Science Foundation of China11991052
National Natural Science Foundation of China11991053
China Postdoctoral Science Foundation2020M671266
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of Korea2014H1A2A1018695
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1A2A1033752
National Research Foundation of Korea2015-R1D1A1A01056807
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2015H1D3A1066561
National Research Foundation of Korea2019R1F1A1059721
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.513
Spinoza PrizeSPI 78-409
South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2017-00648
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Ontario Ministry of Research, Innovation and ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)PGC2018-098915-B-C21
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-80889-P
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)PID2019-108995GB-C21
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Toray Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaP18-FR-1769
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas2019AEP112
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)89233218CNA000001
European Research Council (ERC)730562 RadioNet
ALMA North America Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
NASA ChandraTM6-17006X
NASA ChandraDD7-18089X
Generalitat ValencianaCIDEGENT/2018/021
NSFACI-1548562
NSFDBI-0735191
NSFDBI-1265383
NSFDBI-1743442
NSFTG-AST170024
NSFTG-AST080026N
NSFAST-170028
Compute OntarioUNSPECIFIED
Calcul QuebecUNSPECIFIED
Compute CanadaUNSPECIFIED
National Key Research and Development Program of China2017YFA0402700
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)UNSPECIFIED
State of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
NSFPLR-1248097
NSFPHY-1125897
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF 947
Subject Keywords:Compact astrophysical objects; Galaxies and clusters; High-energy astrophysics
Issue or Number:10
DOI:10.1038/s41550-021-01417-w
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210729-141343338
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210729-141343338
Official Citation:Janssen, M., Falcke, H., Kadler, M. et al. Event Horizon Telescope observations of the jet launching and collimation in Centaurus A. Nat Astron 5, 1017–1028 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-021-01417-w
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110060
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Aug 2021 19:16
Last Modified:12 Oct 2021 20:56

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