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Hi-GAL compact source catalogue – II. The 360° catalogue of clump physical properties

Elia, Davide and Merello, M. and Molinari, S. and Schisano, E. and Zavagno, A. and Russeil, D. and Mège, P. and Martin, P. G. and Olmi, L. and Pestalozzi, M. and Plume, R. and Ragan, S. E. and Benedettini, M. and Eden, D. J. and Moore, T. J. T. and Noriega-Crespo, A. and Paladini, R. and Palmeirim, P. and Pezzuto, S. and Pilbratt, G. L. and Rygl, K. L. J. and Schilke, P. and Strafella, F. and Tan, J. C. and Traficante, A. and Baldeschi, A. and Bally, J. and di Giorgio, A. M. and Fiorellino, E. and Liu, S. J. and Piazzo, L. and Polychroni, D. (2021) Hi-GAL compact source catalogue – II. The 360° catalogue of clump physical properties. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 504 (2). pp. 2742-2766. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1038.

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We present the 360° catalogue of physical properties of Hi-GAL compact sources, detected between 70 and 500 μμm. This release not only completes the analogous catalogue previously produced by the Hi-GAL collaboration for −71° ≲ ℓ ≲ 67°, but also meaningfully improves it because of a new set of heliocentric distances, 120 808 in total. About a third of the 150 223 entries are located in the newly added portion of the Galactic plane. A first classification based on detection at 70 μm as a signature of ongoing star-forming activity distinguishes between protostellar sources (23 per cent of the total) and starless sources, with the latter further classified as gravitationally bound (pre-stellar) or unbound. The integral of the spectral energy distribution, including ancillary photometry from λ = 21 to 1100 μm, gives the source luminosity and other bolometric quantities, while a modified blackbody fitted to data for λ ≥ 160 μm yields mass and temperature. All tabulated clump properties are then derived using photometry and heliocentric distance, where possible. Statistics of these quantities are discussed with respect to both source Galactic location and evolutionary stage. No strong differences in the distributions of evolutionary indicators are found between the inner and outer Galaxy. However, masses and densities in the inner Galaxy are on average significantly larger, resulting in a higher number of clumps that are candidates to host massive star formation. Median behaviour of distance-independent parameters tracing source evolutionary status is examined as a function of the Galactocentric radius, showing no clear evidence of correlation with spiral arm positions.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemCode
Elia, Davide0000-0002-9120-5890
Merello, M.0000-0003-0709-708X
Molinari, S.0000-0002-9826-7525
Schisano, E.0000-0003-1560-3958
Olmi, L.0000-0002-1162-7947
Ragan, S. E.0000-0003-4164-5588
Eden, D. J.0000-0002-5881-3229
Paladini, R.0000-0002-5158-243X
Palmeirim, P.0000-0002-0590-7416
Pezzuto, S.0000-0001-7852-1971
Traficante, A.0000-0003-1665-6402
Fiorellino, E.0000-0002-5261-6216
Liu, S. J.0000-0001-7680-2139
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2021 April 1. Received 2021 March 31; in original form 2020 December 10. Published: 16 April 2021. PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAF-IFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESA-PRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy), and CICYT/MCYT (Spain). SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff University (UK) and including Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC, UKSA (UK); and NASA (USA). The ATLASGAL project is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the Universidad de Chile. It includes projects E-181.C-0885, E-078.F-9040(A), M-079.C-9501(A), M-081.C-9501(A) plus Chilean data. This research is supported by INAF, through the Mainstream Grant ‘The ultimate exploitation of the Hi-GAL archive and ancillary infrared/mm data’ (P.I. D. Elia), by the H2020-EU.1.1. - EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council program through the ECOGAL Synergy Grant, and by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) through the research contract 2018-31-HH.0. AZ thanks the support of the Institut Universitaire de France. PP acknowledges support from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through the research grants UIDB/04434/2020 and UIDP/04434/2020. PP receives support from the fellowship SFRH/BPD/110176/2015 funded by FCT (Portugal) and POPH/FSE (EC). Data Availability: The data underlying this article are available in VIALACTEA project, at The catalogue of Hi-GAL clump physical properties is also hosted in the VIALACTEA knowledge base (VLKB, Molinaro et al. 2016).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (BMVIT)UNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia (MCYT)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatories of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)
European Research Council (ERC)ECOGAL
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)2018-31-HH.0
Institut Universitaire de France (IUF)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDP/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)SFRH/BPD/110176/2015
Subject Keywords:Stars: formation – ISM: clouds – dust, extinction – local interstellar matter – infrared: ISM – submillimeter: ISM
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210729-163748997
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Davide Elia, M Merello, S Molinari, E Schisano, A Zavagno, D Russeil, P Mège, P G Martin, L Olmi, M Pestalozzi, R Plume, S E Ragan, M Benedettini, D J Eden, T J T Moore, A Noriega-Crespo, R Paladini, P Palmeirim, S Pezzuto, G L Pilbratt, K L J Rygl, P Schilke, F Strafella, J C Tan, A Traficante, A Baldeschi, J Bally, A M di Giorgio, E Fiorellino, S J Liu, L Piazzo, D Polychroni, The Hi-GAL compact source catalogue – II. The 360° catalogue of clump physical properties, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 504, Issue 2, June 2021, Pages 2742–2766,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110066
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:02 Aug 2021 20:30
Last Modified:02 Aug 2021 20:30

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