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Detection of Galactic and Extragalactic Millimeter-wavelength Transient Sources with SPT-3G

Guns, S. and Foster, A. and Daley, C. and Rahlin, A. and Whitehorn, N. and Ade, P. A. R. and Ahmed, Z. and Anderes, E. and Anderson, A. J. and Archipley, M. and Avva, J. S. and Aylor, K. and Balkenhol, L. and Barry, P. S. and Basu Thakur, R. and Benabed, K. and Bender, A. N. and Benson, B. A. and Bianchini, F. and Bleem, L. E. and Bouchet, F. R. and Bryant, L. and Byrum, K. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Carter, F. W. and Cecil, T. W. and Chang, C. L. and Chaubal, P. and Chen, G. and Cho, H.-M. and Chou, T.-L. and Cliche, J.-F. and Crawford, T. M. and Cukierman, A. and de Haan, T. and Denison, E. V. and Dibert, K. and Ding, J. and Dobbs, M. A. and Dutcher, D. and Everett, W. and Feng, C. and Ferguson, K. R. and Fu, J. and Galli, S. and Gambrel, A. E. and Gardner, R. W. and Goeckner-Wald, N. and Gualtieri, R. and Gupta, N. and Guyser, R. and Halverson, N. W. and Harke-Hosemann, A. H. and Harrington, N. L. and Henning, J. W. and Hilton, G. C. and Hivon, E. and Holder, G. P. and Holzapfel, W. L. and Hood, J. C. and Howell, D. Andrew and Huang, N. and Irwin, K. D. and Jeong, O. B. and Jonas, M. and Jones, A. and Khaire, T. S. and Knox, L. and Kofman, A. M. and Korman, M. and Kubik, D. L. and Kuhlmann, S. and Kuo, C.-L. and Lee, A. T. and Leitch, E. M. and Lowitz, A. E. and Lu, C. and Marrone, D. P. and Meyer, S. S. and Michalik, D. and Millea, M. and Montgomery, J. and Nadolski, A. and Natoli, T. and Nguyen, H. and Noble, G. I. and Novosad, V. and Omori, Y. and Padin, S. and Pan, Z. and Paschos, P. and Pearson, J. and Phadke, K. A. and Posada, C. M. and Prabhu, K. and Quan, W. and Reichardt, C. L. and Riebel, D. and Riedel, B. and Rouble, M. and Ruhl, J. E. and Sayre, J. T. and Schiappucci, E. and Shirokoff, E. and Smecher, G. and Sobrin, J. A. and Stark, A. A. and Stephen, J. and Story, K. T. and Suzuki, A. and Thompson, K. L. and Thorne, B. and Tucker, C. and Umilta, C. and Vale, L. R. and Vieira, J. D. and Wang, G. and Wu, W. L. K. and Yefremenko, V. and Yoon, K. W. and Young, M. R. and Zhang, L. (2021) Detection of Galactic and Extragalactic Millimeter-wavelength Transient Sources with SPT-3G. Astrophysical Journal, 916 (2). Art. No. 98. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac06a3.

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High angular resolution cosmic microwave background experiments provide a unique opportunity to conduct a survey of time-variable sources at millimeter wavelengths, a population that has primarily been understood through follow-up measurements of detections in other bands. Here we report the first results of an astronomical transient survey with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) using the SPT-3G camera to observe 1500 deg² of the southern sky. The observations took place from 2020 March to November in three bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. This survey yielded the detection of 15 transient events from sources not previously detected by the SPT. The majority are associated with variable stars of different types, expanding the number of such detected flares by more than a factor of two. The stellar flares are unpolarized and bright, in some cases exceeding 1 Jy, and have durations from a few minutes to several hours. Another population of detected events last for 2–3 weeks and appear to be extragalactic in origin. Though data availability at other wavelengths is limited, we find evidence for concurrent optical activity for two of the stellar flares. Future data from SPT-3G and forthcoming instruments will provide real-time detection of millimeter-wave transients on timescales of minutes to months.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Guns, S.0000-0001-7143-2853
Whitehorn, N.0000-0002-3157-0407
Ade, P. A. R.0000-0002-5127-0401
Archipley, M.0000-0002-0517-9842
Basu Thakur, R.0000-0002-3351-3078
Benson, B. A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Bianchini, F.0000-0003-4847-3483
Bleem, L. E.0000-0001-7665-5079
Bouchet, F. R.0000-0002-8051-2924
Carlstrom, J. E.0000-0002-2044-7665
Chang, C. L.0000-0002-6311-0448
Cliche, J.-F.0000-0001-6509-8430
Crawford, T. M.0000-0001-9000-5013
Cukierman, A.0000-0002-7471-719X
de Haan, T.0000-0001-5105-9473
Dibert, K.0000-0001-7439-8726
Dobbs, M. A.0000-0001-7166-6422
Dutcher, D.0000-0002-9962-2058
Everett, W.0000-0002-5370-6651
Fu, J.0000-0002-3767-299X
Gupta, N.0000-0001-7652-9451
Halverson, N. W.0000-0003-2606-9340
Hilton, G. C.0000-0003-4247-467X
Hivon, E.0000-0003-1880-2733
Holder, G. P.0000-0002-0463-6394
Howell, D. Andrew0000-0003-4253-656X
Lee, A. T.0000-0002-8428-8050
Marrone, D. P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Meyer, S. S.0000-0003-3315-4332
Nadolski, A.0000-0001-9479-9957
Omori, Y.0000-0002-0963-7310
Phadke, K. A.0000-0001-7946-557X
Reichardt, C. L.0000-0003-2226-9169
Riedel, B.0000-0002-9524-8943
Sayre, J. T.0000-0002-1062-1842
Shirokoff, E.0000-0002-2757-1423
Smecher, G.0000-0002-5560-187X
Stark, A. A.0000-0002-2718-9996
Tucker, C.0000-0002-1851-3918
Vieira, J. D.0000-0001-7192-3871
Wu, W. L. K.0000-0001-5411-6920
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 March 16; revised 2021 May 21; accepted 2021 May 27; published 2021 August 3. The authors thank Anna Ho for helpful comments on a draft version of this paper. We are also grateful to Jeff DeRosa and Johan Booth for providing guidance for South Pole weather balloons. Thanks to Charles Gammie, Leslie Looney, Paul Ricker, Bob Rutledge, and Laura Chomiuk for invaluable early discussions. The South Pole Telescope program is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through grants PLR-1248097 and OPP-1852617, with this analysis and the online transient program supported by grant AST-1716965. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant GBMF#947 to the University of Chicago. Argonne National Laboratory's work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, a DOE-OS, HEP User Facility managed by the Fermi Research Alliance, LLC, was supported under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359. The Cardiff authors acknowledge support from the UK Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC). The I.A.P. authors acknowledge support from the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES). J.V. acknowledges support from the Sloan Foundation. The Melbourne authors acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council's Discovery Project scheme (DP200101068). The McGill authors acknowledge funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, and the Fonds de recherche du Québec Nature et technologies. The U.C.L.A. and M.S.U. authors acknowledge support from NSF AST-1716965 and CSSI-1835865. This research was done using resources provided by the Open Science Grid (Pordes et al. 2007; Sfiligoi et al. 2009), which is supported by the NSF award 1148698, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. The data analysis pipeline also uses the scientific Python stack (Virtanen et al. 2020; Hunter 2007; van der Walt et al. 2011). This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, and NEOWISE, which is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology. WISE and NEOWISE are funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by the NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Facilities: ASAS - The All Sky Automated Survey, ASKAP - , Fermi - , Gaia - , NEOWISE - , ROSAT - , SPT (SPT-3G) - , TESS - , WISE - .
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF947
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-06CH11357
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-07CH11359
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilDP200101068
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et technologies (FRQNT)UNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Stellar flares; Active galactic nuclei; High energy astrophysics; Transient detection; Transient sources; Millimeter astronomy; Surveys
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Stellar flares (1603); Active galactic nuclei (16); High energy astrophysics (739); Transient detection (1957); Transient sources (1851); Millimeter astronomy (1061); Surveys (1671)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210813-181200694
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:S. Guns et al 2021 ApJ 916 98
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110248
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:16 Aug 2021 15:06
Last Modified:16 Aug 2021 15:06

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