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Euclid : Effects of sample covariance on the number counts of galaxy clusters

Fumagalli, A. and Saro, A. and Borgani, S. and Castro, T. and Costanzi, M. and Monaco, P. and Munari, E. and Sefusatti, E. and Amara, A. and Auricchio, N. and Balestra, A. and Bodendorf, C. and Bonino, D. and Branchini, E. and Brinchmann, J. and Capobianco, V. and Carbone, C. and Castellano, M. and Cavuoti, S. and Cimatti, A. and Cledassou, R. and Conselice, C. J. and Corcione, L. and Costille, A. and Cropper, M. and Degaudenzi, H. and Douspis, M. and Dubath, F. and Dusini, S. and Ealet, A. and Fosalba, P. and Franceschi, E. and Franzetti, P. and Fumana, M. and Garilli, B. and Giocoli, C. and Grupp, F. and Guzzo, L. and Haugan, S. V. H. and Hoekstra, H. and Holmes, W. and Hormuth, F. and Jahnke, K. and Kiessling, A. and Kilbinger, M. and Kitching, T. and Kümmel, M. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Laureijs, R. and Lilje, P. B. and Lloro, I. and Maiorano, E. and Marggraf, O. and Markovic, K. and Massey, R. and Meneghetti, M. and Meylan, G. and Moscardini, L. and Niemi, S. M. and Padilla, C. and Paltani, S. and Pasian, F. and Pedersen, K. and Pettorino, V. and Pires, S. and Poncet, M. and Popa, L. and Pozzetti, L. and Raison, F. and Rhodes, J. and Roncarelli, M. and Rossetti, E. and Saglia, R. and Scaramella, R. and Schneider, P. and Secroun, A. and Seidel, G. and Serrano, S. and Sirignano, C. and Sirri, G. and Taylor, A. N. and Tereno, I. and Toledo-Moreo, R. and Valentijn, E. A. and Valenziano, L. and Wang, Y. and Weller, J. and Zamorani, G. and Zoubian, J. and Brescia, M. and Congedo, G. and Conversi, L. and Mei, S. and Moresco, M. and Vassallo, T. (2021) Euclid : Effects of sample covariance on the number counts of galaxy clusters. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 652 . Art. No. A21. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202140592.

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Aims. We investigate the contribution of shot-noise and sample variance to uncertainties in the cosmological parameter constraints inferred from cluster number counts, in the context of the Euclid survey. Methods. By analysing 1000 Euclid-like light cones, produced with the PINOCCHIO approximate method, we validated the analytical model of Hu & Kravtsov (2003, ApJ, 584, 702) for the covariance matrix, which takes into account both sources of statistical error. Then, we used such a covariance to define the likelihood function that is better equipped to extract cosmological information from cluster number counts at the level of precision that will be reached by the future Euclid photometric catalogs of galaxy clusters. We also studied the impact of the cosmology dependence of the covariance matrix on the parameter constraints. Results. The analytical covariance matrix reproduces the variance measured from simulations within the 10 percent; such a difference has no sizeable effect on the error of cosmological parameter constraints at this level of statistics. Also, we find that the Gaussian likelihood with full covariance is the only model that provides an unbiased inference of cosmological parameters without underestimating the errors, and that the cosmology-dependence of the covariance must be taken into account.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Costanzi, M.0000-0001-8158-1449
Cavuoti, S.0000-0002-3787-4196
Cimatti, A.0000-0002-4409-5633
Conselice, C. J.0000-0003-1949-7638
Jahnke, K.0000-0003-3804-2137
Kunz, M.0000-0003-1676-6126
Massey, R.0000-0002-6085-3780
Meneghetti, M.0000-0003-1225-7084
Paltani, S.0000-0002-8108-9179
Pettorino, V.0000-0002-4203-9320
Rhodes, J.0000-0002-4485-8549
Roncarelli, M.0000-0001-9587-7822
Saglia, R.0000-0003-0378-7032
Wang, Y.0000-0002-4749-2984
Weller, J.0000-0002-8282-2010
Zamorani, G.0000-0002-2318-301X
Brescia, M.0000-0001-9506-5680
Moresco, M.0000-0002-7616-7136
Additional Information:© A. Fumagalli et al. 2021. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received: 17 February 2021 Accepted: 9 April 2021. We would like to thank Laura Salvati for useful discussions about the selection functions. SB, AS and AF acknowledge financial support from the ERC-StG ‘ClustersxCosmo’ grant agreement 716762, the PRIN-MIUR 2015W7KAWC grant, the ASI-Euclid contract and the INDARK grant. TC is supported by the INFN INDARK PD51 grant and by the PRIN-MIUR 2015W7KAWC grant. Our analyses have been carried out at: CINECA, with the projects INA17_C5B32 and IsC82_CosmGC; the computing center of INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, under the coordination of the CHIPP project (Bertocco et al. 2019; Taffoni et al. 2020). The Euclid Consortium acknowledges the European Space Agency and a number of agencies and institutes that have supported the development of Euclid, in particular the Academy of Finland, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, the Belgian Science Policy, the Canadian Euclid Consortium, the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, the Danish Space Research Institute, the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Netherlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie, the Norwegian Space Agency, the Romanian Space Agency, the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI) at the Swiss Space Office (SSO), and the United Kingdom Space Agency. A complete and detailed list is available on the Euclid website (
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)716762
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)2015W7KAWC
Subject Keywords:galaxies: clusters: general / large-scale structure of Universe / cosmological parameters / methods: statistical
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210813-181201644
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Euclid : Effects of sample covariance on the number counts of galaxy clusters A. Fumagalli , A. Saro , S. Borgani , T. Castro , M. Costanzi , P. Monaco , E. Munari , E. Sefusatti , A. Amara , N. Auricchio , A. Balestra , C. Bodendorf , D. Bonino , E. Branchini , J. Brinchmann , V. Capobianco , C. Carbone , M. Castellano , S. Cavuoti , A. Cimatti , R. Cledassou ,CJ Conselice , L. Corcione , A. Costille , M. Cropper , H. Degaudenzi , M. Douspis , F. Dubath , S. Dusini , A. Ealet , P. Fosalba , E. Franceschi , P. Franzetti , M. Fumana , B. Garilli , C. Giocoli , F. Grupp , L. Guzzo , SVH Haugan , H. Hoekstra , W. Holmes , F. Hormuth , K. Jahnke, A. Kiessling , M. Kilbinger , T. Kitching , M. Kümmel , M. Kunz , H. Kurki-Suonio , R. Laureijs , PB Lilje , I. Lloro , E. Maiorano , O. Marggraf , K. Markovic , R. Massey , M. Meneghetti , G. Meylan , L. Moscardini , SM Niemi , C. Padilla , S. Paltani , F. Pasian , K. Pedersen ,V. Pettorino , S. Pires , M. Poncet , L. Popa , L. Pozzetti , F. Raison , J. Rhodes , M. Roncarelli , E. Rossetti , R. Saglia , R. Scaramella , P. Schneider , A. Secroun , G. Seidel , S. Serrano , C. Sirignano , G. Sirri , AN Taylor , I. Tereno , R. Toledo-Moreo , EA Valentijn , L. Valenziano, Y. Wang , J. Weller , G. Zamorani , J. Zoubian , M. Brescia , G. Congedo , L. Conversi , S. Mei , M. Moresco and T. Vassallo A&A, 652 (2021) A21 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110249
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:16 Aug 2021 17:38
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 19:40

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