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Sedimentological and stratigraphic constraints on depositional environment for Ediacaran carbonate rocks of the São Francisco Craton: Implications for phosphogenesis and paleoecology

Sanders, Cecilia and Grotzinger, John (2021) Sedimentological and stratigraphic constraints on depositional environment for Ediacaran carbonate rocks of the São Francisco Craton: Implications for phosphogenesis and paleoecology. Precambrian Research, 363 . Art. No. 106328. ISSN 0301-9268. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2021.106328.

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The Una and Bambuí Groups of northeastern and central Brazil are remnants of a vast intracratonic carbonate platform formed on the São Francisco Craton during the Ediacaran Period. Their basal stratigraphic units contain early phosphatic cements and phosphatic intraclasts in association with elongate digitate stromatolites in the more northern Irecê and Salitre paleobasins (Salitre Formation), and microbial laminites and aragonite crystal fan pseudomorphs in the more southern São Francisco paleobasin (Sete Lagoas Formation). Previous studies have drawn comparisons to other Precambrian phosphorites, as well as modern phosphogenetic environments, suggesting mechanisms of phosphogenesis dependent on the accumulation of porewater phosphate via microbial activity in low flow velocity environments, such as relatively quiescent tidal flats, where an absence of wave-driven advection and porewater refreshment could have allowed oversaturation with respect to carbonate fluorapatite. Here, we present new sedimentological data that characterize the depositional setting of the Salitre and Sete Lagoas formations as a shallow, wave-swept carbonate platform notable for its extensive high-energy lithofacies. In this setting, phosphatic and non-phosphatic stromatolite buildups formed within the same depositional facies, often in close (meter- and decimeter-scale) spatial association with one another. These data suggest that early phosphate mineralization of the Salitre and Sete Lagoas formations was likely not a function of low porewater advection in paleogeographically sheltered regions, but rather highly local processes of phosphate enrichment on a high-energy, wave-swept platform environment.

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Grotzinger, John0000-0001-9324-1257
Additional Information:© 2021 Elsevier B.V. Received 15 November 2020, Revised 22 June 2021, Accepted 13 July 2021, Available online 5 August 2021. We the authors are incredibly grateful to Anelize Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, Leonardo Fadel Cury, Victor Dorneles, Almério Barros França, Angela Rodizes, Gabriel Ruviaro, Larissa Santos, Lucas Valore, Kimberly Viera, and Hugo Yamassaki of the Laboratório de Análises de Minerais e Rochas (LAMIR) e Laboratório de Análise de Bacias (LABAP) da Universidade Federal do Paraná, as well as Filipe Nery Falcão of the Universidade Federal do Bahia, for their expertise, invaluable discussion, and assistance in the field. We also thank Gilsara Alves (Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu), Aly Brandenberg (Shell), Mauricio Calderón (Universidad Adres Bello), Bruce Levell (Oxford University), Juliana Okubo (Universidade Estadual Paulista), Daniel Martins de Oliveira (Petrobras), Alípio Pereira (Petrobras), Cícero da Paixão Pereira (Universidade Federal do Bahia), Chris Vasconcelos (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich), and Lucas Warren (Universidade Estadual Paulista) for their vast collective knowledge, advice, and guidance, as well as Michele Santos, Ricardo Ramos Spreafico, and many others from the Companhia Baiana de Pesquisa Mineral (CBPM) for their expertise in the regional geology of Bahia, and for providing us access to Salitre Fm. drill cores. In addition, we are wholly indebted to the farmers, miners, educators, and conservationists of the Chapada Diamantina and Cavernas do Peruaçu regions for their guidance and expertise. We also wish to thank the reviewers, and to acknowledge that this work was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program (NSF GRFP), and the Simons Foundation. We thank the Simons Collaboration on the Origins of Life (SCOL) for funding and support. Lastly, we humbly acknowledge the Xakriabá, the communities of and surrounding the historic Quilombo da Gruta dos Brejões, as well as other indigenous peoples whose names and identities may have been lost to colonialism and occupation, on whose land this work relies. CRediT authorship contribution statement: Cecilia Sanders: Conceptualization, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing, Visualization, Project administration. John Grotzinger: Supervision, Writing - review & editing, Project administration, Funding acquisition. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
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NSF Graduate Research FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Phosphogenesis; Ediacaran; Sedimentology; Stratigraphy; Carbonate; Stromatolites
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210821-003551186
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Official Citation:Cecilia Sanders, John Grotzinger, Sedimentological and stratigraphic constraints on depositional environment for Ediacaran carbonate rocks of the São Francisco Craton: Implications for phosphogenesis and paleoecology, Precambrian Research, Volume 363, 2021, 106328, ISSN 0301-9268,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110342
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:21 Aug 2021 17:32
Last Modified:21 Aug 2021 17:32

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