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Exciting Modes due to the Aberration of Gravitational Waves: Measurability for Extreme-Mass-Ratio Inspirals

Torres-Orjuela, Alejandro and Amaro Seoane, Pau and Xuan, Zeyuan and Chua, Alvin J. K. and Rosell, Mara J. B. and Chen, Xian (2021) Exciting Modes due to the Aberration of Gravitational Waves: Measurability for Extreme-Mass-Ratio Inspirals. Physical Review Letters, 127 (4). Art. No. 041102. ISSN 0031-9007. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.127.041102.

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Gravitational waves from a source moving relative to us can suffer from special-relativistic effects such as aberration. The required velocities for these to be significant are on the order of 1000  km s⁻¹. This value corresponds to the velocity dispersion that one finds in clusters of galaxies. Hence, we expect a large number of gravitational-wave sources to have such effects imprinted in their signals. In particular, the signal from a moving source will have its higher modes excited, i.e., (3,3) and beyond. We derive expressions describing this effect and study its measurability for the specific case of a circular, nonspinning extreme-mass-ratio inspiral. We find that the excitation of higher modes by a peculiar velocity of 1000  km s⁻¹ is detectable for such inspirals with signal-to-noise ratios of ≳20. Using a Fisher matrix analysis, we show that the velocity of the source can be measured to a precision of just a few percent for a signal-to-noise ratio of 100. If the motion of the source is ignored, parameter estimates could be biased, e.g., the estimated masses of the components through a Doppler shift. Conversely, by including this effect in waveform models, we could measure the velocity dispersion of clusters of galaxies at distances inaccessible to light.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Torres-Orjuela, Alejandro0000-0002-5467-3505
Amaro Seoane, Pau0000-0003-3993-3249
Chua, Alvin J. K.0000-0001-5242-8269
Rosell, Mara J. B.0000-0003-0416-9818
Chen, Xian0000-0003-3950-9317
Additional Information:© 2021 American Physical Society. Received 8 November 2020; accepted 14 June 2021; published 23 July 2021. A. T.-O. and X. C. acknowledge the support from the National Science Foundation of China, Grants No. 11873022 and No. 11991053, and from the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grants No. XDB23040100 and No. XDB23010200. P. A. S. acknowledges support from the Ramón y Cajal Programme of the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness of Spain, as well as the COST Action GWverse CA16104. This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFA0400702) and the National Science Foundation of China (11721303). A. J. K. C. is grateful to Christopher Moore for discussions on boosted gravitational waves, and acknowledges support from the NASA Grant No. 18-LPS18-0027. M. J. B. R. has been supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1912578. We thank Volker Springel, Massimo Dotti, Raffaella Schneider, Rosa Valiante, and Paolo Tozzi for discussions about galaxy clusters, and Enrico Barausse and K. G. Arun for discussions about the amplitude of the subdominant modes.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Science Foundation of China11873022
National Science Foundation of China11991053
Chinese Academy of SciencesXDB23040100
Chinese Academy of SciencesXDB23010200
Ramón y Cajal ProgrammeUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)CA16104
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702
National Natural Science Foundation of China11721303
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210823-144753461
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110377
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Aug 2021 18:20
Last Modified:24 Aug 2021 18:20

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