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Landscaping the Behavioural Ecology of Primate Stone Tool Use

Almeida-Warren, Katarina and Camara, Henry Didier and Matsuzawa, Tetsuro and Carvalho, Susana (2022) Landscaping the Behavioural Ecology of Primate Stone Tool Use. International Journal of Primatology, 43 (5). pp. 885-912. ISSN 0164-0291. doi:10.1007/s10764-022-00305-y.

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Ecology is fundamental in the development, transmission, and perpetuity of primate technology. Previous studies on tool site selection have addressed the relevance of targeted resources and raw materials for tools, but few have considered the broader foraging landscape. In this landscape-scale study of the ecological contexts of wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) tool use, we investigated the conditions required for nut-cracking to occur and persist in discrete locations at the long-term field site of Bossou, Guinea. We examined this at three levels: selection, frequency of use, and inactivity. We collected data on plant foods, nut trees, and raw materials using transect and quadrat methods, and conducted forest-wide surveys to map the location of nests and watercourses. We analysed data at the quadrat level (n = 82) using generalised linear models and descriptive statistics. We found that, further to the presence of a nut tree and availability of raw materials, abundance of food-providing trees as well as proximity to nest sites were significant predictors of nut-cracking occurrence. This suggests that the spatial distribution of nut-cracking sites is mediated by the broader behavioural landscape and is influenced by non-extractive foraging of perennial resources and non-foraging activities. Additionally, the number of functional tools was greater at sites with higher nut-cracking frequency, and was negatively correlated with site inactivity. Our research indicates that the technological landscape of Bossou chimpanzees shares affinities with the ‘favoured places’ model of hominin site formation, providing a comparative framework for reconstructing landscape-scale patterns of ancient human behaviour. A French translation of this abstract is provided in the electronic supplementary information: EMS 2.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Almeida-Warren, Katarina0000-0002-7634-9466
Matsuzawa, Tetsuro0000-0002-8147-2725
Carvalho, Susana0000-0003-4542-3720
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit Received 21 March 2022; Accepted 28 May 2022; Published 07 July 2022. We are grateful to Vincent Mamy, Lawe Goigbe, Boniface Zogbila, Gouanou Zogbila, Jules Doré, and Pascal Goumi for support in the field; Dr. Jesse van der Grient and Dr. Alexander Mielke for statistical advice; Dr. Dora Biro and Dr. Bronwyn Tarr for helpful feedback on the original manuscript; Dr. Kat Koops and one anonymous reviewer for their constructive comments on the submitted manuscript; Dr. Tatyana Humle and Prof. William McGrew for feedback on subsequent revisions. We also thank the Direction Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, the Institut de Recherche Environmentale de Bossou (Guinea), and the Kyoto University Primate Research Institute, for research permissions and logistical support. KAW was funded by the Fundação pela Ciência e Tecnologia (grant number: SFRH/BD/115085/2016), supported by the Programa Operacional Capital Humano (POCH) and the European Union; the Boise Trust Fund (University of Oxford); and the National Geographic Society (grant number: EC-399R-18); TM thanks the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Leading Graduate Program (U04-PWS), JSPS core-to-core CCSN, and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT)/JSPS-KAKENHI (grant numbers: #07102010, #12002009, #16002001, #20002001, #24000001, #16H06283); SC thanks the Leverhulme Trust (grant number: PLP 2016-114) which supported part of the field equipment and logistics. Contributions: KAW is the main author and contributor and was responsible for conceptualization, methodology, primary data collection, formal analysis, interpretation, data curation, visualization and writing of the original manuscript. HDC collected data, participated in methodological and logistical preparations while in the field, and commented on the manuscript. TM provided resources, data, methodological and logistic advice, and manuscript revisions. SC contributed towards conceptualization, methodology and revisions of the manuscript, and provided supervision, resources, and data. All authors gave final approval for publication and agree to be held accountable for the work performed therein. The authors declare no competing interests.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)SFRH/BD/115085/2016
Programa Operacional Capital Humano (POCH)UNSPECIFIED
University of OxfordUNSPECIFIED
National Geographic SocietyEC-399R-18
Leverhulme TrustPLP 2016-114
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)U04-PWS
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)07102010
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)12002009
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)16002001
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)20002001
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)24000001
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)16H06283
Leverhulme TrustPLP 2016-114
Subject Keywords:behavioural ecology; landscape use; nut-cracking; primate archaeology; wild chimpanzees
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210825-172304821
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Official Citation:Almeida-Warren, K., Camara, H.D., Matsuzawa, T. et al. Landscaping the Behavioural Ecology of Primate Stone Tool Use. Int J Primatol 43, 885–912 (2022).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110495
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:25 Aug 2021 17:36
Last Modified:11 Nov 2022 23:04

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