A Caltech Library Service

Femtojoule, femtosecond all-optical switching in lithium niobate nanophotonics

Guo, Qiushi and Sekine, Ryoto and Ledezma, Luis and Nehra, Rajveer and Dean, Devin J. and Roy, Arkadev and Gray, Robert M. and Jahani, Saman and Marandi, Alireza (2021) Femtojoule, femtosecond all-optical switching in lithium niobate nanophotonics. . (Unpublished)

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Optical nonlinear functions are crucial for various applications in integrated photonics, such as all-optical information processing, photonic neural networks and on-chip ultrafast light sources. Due to the weak nonlinearities in most integrated photonic platforms, realizing optical nonlinear functions typically requires large driving energies in the picojoules level or beyond, thus imposing a barrier for most applications. Here, we tackle this challenge and demonstrate an integrated nonlinear splitter device in lithium niobate nano-waveguides by simultaneous engineering of the dispersion and quasi-phase matching. We achieve non-resonant all-optical switching with ultra-low energies down to tens of femtojoules, a near instantaneous switching time of 18 fs, and a large extinction ratio of more than 5 dB. Our nonlinear splitter simultaneously realizes switch-on and -off operations and features a state-of-the-art switching energy-time product as low as 1.4 × 10⁻²⁷ J⋅s. We also show a path toward attojoule level all-optical switching by further optimizing the device geometry. Our results can enable on-chip ultrafast and energy-efficient all-optical information processing, computing systems, and light sources.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Guo, Qiushi0000-0002-6217-102X
Ledezma, Luis0000-0002-0365-1672
Nehra, Rajveer0000-0002-0165-2188
Roy, Arkadev0000-0001-5659-8388
Jahani, Saman0000-0003-4831-2276
Marandi, Alireza0000-0002-0470-0050
Additional Information:The device nanofabrication was performed at the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI) at Caltech. The authors thank Prof. Kerry Vahala and Prof. Changhuei Yang for loaning equipment. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from ARO grant no. W911NF-18-1-0285, NSF grant no. 1846273 and 1918549, AFOSR award FA9550-20-1-0040, and NASA/JPL. The authors wish to thank NTT Research for their financial and technical support. AUTHORS CONTRIBUTIONS. Q.G. and A.M. conceived the project; Q.G. fabricated the devices and performed the measurements with assistance from R.S, R.N., S.J. and R.M.G. L.L. developed the single-envelope simulation tool. L.L., D.J.D. and A.R. contributed to the design of the device; Q.G. and L.L. analyzed the experimental results and performed the simulations. L.L. performed the periodic poling; Q.G. wrote the manuscript with input from all other authors. A.M. supervised the project. DATA AVAILABILITY. The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. CODE AVAILABILITY. The computer code used to perform the nonlinear simulations in this paper is available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. The authors declare no competing interests.
Group:Kavli Nanoscience Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Army Research Office (ARO)W911NF-18-1-0285
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)FA9550-20-1-0040
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210825-184631841
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110559
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:30 Aug 2021 17:37
Last Modified:30 Aug 2021 17:37

Repository Staff Only: item control page