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Constraints from LIGO O3 Data on Gravitational-wave Emission Due to R-modes in the Glitching Pulsar PSR J0537–6910

Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Abraham, S. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, A. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Agarwal, D. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Aiello, L. and Ain, A. and Ajith, P. and Akutsu, T. and Aleman, K. M. and Allen, G. and Allocca, A. and Altin, P. A. and Amato, A. and Anand, S. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Ando, M. and Angelova, S. V. and Ansoldi, S. and Antelis, J. M. and Antier, S. and Appert, S. and Arai, Koya and Arai, Koji and Arai, Y. and Araki, S. and Araya, A. and Araya, M. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arène, M. and Aritomi, N. and Arnaud, N. and Aronson, S. M. and Arun, K. G. and Asada, H. and Asali, Y. and Ashton, G. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Aubin, F. and Aufmuth, P. and AultONeal, K. and Austin, C. and Babak, S. and Badaracco, F. and Bader, M. K. M. and Bae, S. and Bae, Y. and Baer, A. M. and Bagnasco, S. and Bai, Y. and Baiotti, L. and Baird, J. and Bajpai, R. and Ball, M. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Bals, M. and Balsamo, A. and Baltus, G. and Banagiri, S. and Bankar, D. and Bankar, R. S. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barbieri, C. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, D. and Barneo, P. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barta, D. and Bartlett, J. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Basti, A. and Bawaj, M. and Bayley, J. C. and Baylor, A. C. and Bazzan, M. and Bécsy, B. and Bedakihale, V. M. and Bejger, M. and Belahcene, I. and Benedetto, V. and Beniwal, D. and Benjamin, M. G. and Bennett, T. F. and Bentley, J. D. and BenYaala, M. and Bergamin, F. and Berger, B. K. and Bernuzzi, S. and Bersanetti, D. and Bertolini, A. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhandare, R. and Bhandari, A. V. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Bhaumik, S. and Bidler, J. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Birney, R. and Birnholtz, O. and Biscans, S. and Bischi, M. and Biscoveanu, S. and Bisht, A. and Biswas, B. and Bitossi, M. and Bizouard, M.-A. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackman, J. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, D. G. and Blair, R. M. and Bobba, F. and Bode, N. and Boër, M. and Bogaert, G. and Boldrini, M. and Bondu, F. and Bonilla, E. and Bonnand, R. and Booker, P. and Boom, B. A. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, N. and Bose, S. and Bossilkov, V. and Boudart, V. and Bouffanais, Y. and Bozzi, A. and Bradaschia, C. and Brady, P. R. and Bramley, A. and Branch, A. and Branchesi, M. and Brau, J. E. and Breschi, M. and Briant, T. and Briggs, J. H. and Brillet, A. and Brinkmann, M. and Brockill, P. and Brooks, A. F. and Brooks, J. and Brown, D. D. and Brunett, S. and Bruno, G. and Bruntz, R. and Bryant, J. and Buikema, A. and Bulik, T. and Bulten, H. J. and Buonanno, A. and Buscicchio, R. and Buskulic, D. and Byer, R. 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(2021) Constraints from LIGO O3 Data on Gravitational-wave Emission Due to R-modes in the Glitching Pulsar PSR J0537–6910. Astrophysical Journal, 922 (1). Art. No. 71. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac0d52. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210825-184643051

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Abstract

We present a search for continuous gravitational-wave emission due to r-modes in the pulsar PSR J0537–6910 using data from the LIGO–Virgo Collaboration observing run O3. PSR J0537–6910 is a young energetic X-ray pulsar and is the most frequent glitcher known. The inter-glitch braking index of the pulsar suggests that gravitational-wave emission due to r-mode oscillations may play an important role in the spin evolution of this pulsar. Theoretical models confirm this possibility and predict emission at a level that can be probed by ground-based detectors. In order to explore this scenario, we search for r-mode emission in the epochs between glitches by using a contemporaneous timing ephemeris obtained from NICER data. We do not detect any signals in the theoretically expected band of 86–97 Hz, and report upper limits on the amplitude of the gravitational waves. Our results improve on previous amplitude upper limits from r-modes in J0537-6910 by a factor of up to 3 and place stringent constraints on theoretical models for r-mode-driven spin-down in PSR J0537–6910, especially for higher frequencies at which our results reach below the spin-down limit defined by energy conservation.


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https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac0d52DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2104.14417arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Ajith, P.0000-0001-7519-2439
Akutsu, T.0000-0003-0733-7530
Allocca, A.0000-0002-5288-1351
Amato, A.0000-0001-9557-651X
Anand, S.0000-0003-3768-7515
Ansoldi, S.0000-0002-5613-7693
Arai, Koji0000-0001-8916-8915
Araya, A.0000-0002-6884-2875
Araya, M. C.0000-0002-6018-6447
Areeda, J. S.0000-0003-0266-7936
Arnaud, N.0000-0001-6589-8673
Ashton, G.0000-0001-7288-2231
Aso, Y.0000-0002-1902-6695
Austin, C.0000-0001-5488-9480
Bae, Y.0000-0003-2429-3357
Ballmer, S. W.0000-0003-2306-523X
Barsotti, L.0000-0001-9819-2562
Barton, M. A.0000-0002-9948-306X
Bartos, I.0000-0001-5607-3637
Bassiri, R.0000-0001-8171-6833
Berger, B. K.0000-0002-4845-8737
Bernuzzi, S.0000-0002-2334-0935
Betzwieser, J.0000-0003-1533-9229
Bhattacharjee, D.0000-0001-6623-9506
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, S.0000-0002-9635-7527
Biscoveanu, S.0000-0001-7616-7366
Bizouard, M.-A.0000-0002-4618-1674
Blackburn, J. K.0000-0002-3838-2986
Blackman, J.0000-0002-7113-0289
Blair, C. D.0000-0003-4566-6888
Bode, N.0000-0002-7101-9396
Boër, M.0000-0001-9157-4349
Bose, S.0000-0003-3529-3854
Brady, P. R.0000-0002-4611-9387
Branchesi, M.0000-0003-1643-0526
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Buikema, A.0000-0001-9409-5757
Bulik, T.0000-0003-2045-4803
Byer, R. L.0000-0003-1331-0318
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Calderón Bustillo, J.0000-0002-4171-5884
Callister, T. A.0000-0001-9892-177X
Canepa, M.0000-0002-5148-1233
Cannon, K. C.0000-0003-4068-6572
Cao, H.0000-0002-6917-8363
Capocasa, E.0000-0003-3762-6958
Caudill, S.0000-0002-8927-6673
Chen, Y.-B.0000-0002-9730-9463
Chiang, C.-Y.0000-0002-9630-4003
Christensen, N.0000-0002-6870-4202
Ciani, G.0000-0003-4258-9338
Ciobanu, A. A.0000-0002-4793-093X
Compton, C. M.0000-0002-8217-5749
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Coughlin, M. W.0000-0002-8262-2924
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Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Cuoco, E.0000-0002-6528-3449
Dálya, G.0000-0003-3258-5763
Darsow-Fromm, C.0000-0001-9602-0388
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Deléglise, S.0000-0002-8680-5170
De Lillo, N.0000-0002-5083-3639
Del Pozzo, W.0000-0003-3978-2030
DeMarchi, L. M.0000-0003-4587-2366
De Matteis, F.0000-0001-7860-9754
De Rosa, R.0000-0002-4918-0247
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Drori, Y.0000-0001-6590-1828
Eichholz, J.0000-0002-2643-163X
Fauchon-Jones, E. J.0000-0002-4200-892X
Feicht, J.0000-0001-5223-7091
Fejer, M. M.0000-0002-5512-1905
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Fishbach, M.0000-0002-1980-5293
Frasca, S.0000-0002-3741-2215
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Giaime, J. A.0000-0002-3531-817X
Giesler, M.0000-0003-2300-893X
Goetz, E.0000-0003-2666-721X
Gopakumar, A.0000-0003-4274-4369
Grado, A.0000-0002-0501-8256
Granata, M.0000-0003-3275-1186
Green, A. C.0000-0002-6287-8746
Gretarsson, A. M.0000-0003-3438-9926
Gupta, Anchal0000-0002-1762-9644
Hall, E. D.0000-0001-9018-666X
Hannuksela, O. A.0000-0002-3887-7137
Helmling-Cornell, A. F.0000-0002-7709-8638
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Holgado, A. M.0000-0003-4143-8132
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Howell, E. J.0000-0001-7891-2817
Huerta, E. A.0000-0002-9682-3604
Inayoshi, K.0000-0001-9840-4959
Ioka, K.0000-0002-3517-1956
Izumi, K.0000-0003-3405-8334
Jariwala, D.0000-0002-3570-8768
Kalogera, V.0000-0001-9236-5469
Kamai, B.0000-0001-6521-9351
Kanda, N.0000-0001-6291-0227
Kandhasamy, S.0000-0002-4825-6764
Kanner, J. B.0000-0001-8115-0577
Kasprzack, M.0000-0003-4618-5939
Key, J. S.0000-0003-0123-7600
Kijbunchoo, N.0000-0002-2874-1228
Kinley-Hanlon, M.0000-0002-7367-8002
Kissel, J. S.0000-0002-1702-9577
Kleybolte, L.0000-0003-2831-5533
Komori, K.0000-0002-4092-9602
Kong, A. K. H.0000-0002-5105-344X
Korobko, M.0000-0002-3839-3909
Kovalam, M.0000-0001-8143-9696
Kozak, D. B.0000-0003-3118-8950
Lamberts, A.0000-0001-8740-0127
Lane, B. B.0000-0002-7379-3764
Lange, J.0000-0001-7513-6330
Lantz, B.0000-0002-7404-4845
Lasky, P. D.0000-0003-3763-1386
Laxen, M.0000-0001-7515-9639
Li, A. K. Y.0000-0001-6728-6523
Llorens-Monteagudo, M.0000-0003-4984-2527
Lo, R. K. L.0000-0003-1561-6716
Losurdo, G.0000-0003-0452-746X
Lovelace, G.0000-0002-7084-1070
Lück, H.0000-0001-9350-4846
MacInnis, M.0000-0001-8733-9207
Macleod, D. M.0000-0002-1395-8694
MacMillan, I. A. O.0000-0002-6927-1031
Magaña Hernandez, I.0000-0003-2362-0459
Mapelli, M.0000-0001-8799-2548
Márka, S.0000-0002-3957-1324
Markowitz, A.0000-0003-0223-2342
Martin, I. W.0000-0001-7300-9151
Martynov, D. V.0000-0003-0679-1344
Massinger, T. J.0000-0002-3429-5025
Masso-Reid, M.0000-0001-6177-8105
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
McClelland, D. E.0000-0001-6210-5842
McCuller, L.0000-0003-0851-0593
McIver, J.0000-0003-0316-1355
McWilliams, S. T.0000-0003-2397-8290
Menendez-Vazquez, A.0000-0002-0828-8219
Meshkov, S.0000-0002-7973-5338
Meylahn, F.0000-0002-9556-142X
Miao, H.0000-0003-2879-5821
Mitselmakher, G.0000-0001-5745-3658
Mo, Geoffrey0000-0001-6331-112X
Mow-Lowry, C. M.0000-0002-0351-4555
Mozzon, S.0000-0002-8855-2509
Mukherjee, Arunava0000-0003-1274-5846
Mukund, N.0000-0002-8666-9156
Mullavey, A.0000-0002-8123-7338
Murray, P. G.0000-0002-8218-2404
Nguyen Quynh, L.0000-0002-1828-3702
Nicholson, S. A.0000-0002-1226-1828
Nishizawa, A.0000-0003-3562-0990
Nissanke, S.0000-0001-6573-7773
Nozaki, S.0000-0002-6246-2767
Nuttall, L. K.0000-0002-8599-8791
Obuchi, Y.0000-0003-0234-7174
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Pankow, C.0000-0002-1128-3662
Parker, W.0000-0002-7711-4423
Pele, A.0000-0002-1873-3769
Peña Arellano, F. E.0000-0002-8516-5159
Penn, S.0000-0003-4956-0853
Pfeiffer, H. P.0000-0001-9288-519X
Piendibene, M.0000-0003-2434-488X
Piergiovanni, F.0000-0001-8063-828X
Piotrzkowski, K.0000-0002-6226-957X
Pirello, M.0000-0002-2857-4642
Prokhorov, L.0000-0002-0869-185X
Punturo, M.0000-0001-8722-4485
Quetschke, V.0000-0002-8012-4868
Quitzow-James, R.0000-0003-1233-633X
Raaijmakers, G.0000-0002-9397-786X
Ramirez, K. E.0000-0003-2194-7669
Reitze, D. H.0000-0002-5756-1111
Ricci, F.0000-0001-5742-5980
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Riles, K.0000-0002-6418-5812
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Romero-Rodríguez, A.0000-0003-2275-4164
Ross, M. P.0000-0002-8955-5269
Rowan, S.0000-0002-0666-9907
Sachdev, S.0000-0002-2432-7070
Savage, R. L.0000-0003-3317-1036
Sawada, T.0000-0001-5726-7150
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Schnabel, R.0000-0003-2896-4218
Schutz, B. F.0000-0001-9487-6983
Schwartz, E.0000-0001-8922-7794
Shimoda, T.0000-0001-6198-1816
Shoemaker, D. H.0000-0002-4147-2560
Sieniawska, M.0000-0001-5895-5537
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Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 April 29; revised 2021 June 15; accepted 2021 June 15; published 2021 November 23. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max Planck Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d'Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d'Innovació Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain, the National Science Centre of Poland and the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP), the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS), Actions de Recherche Concertées (ARC) and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek—Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium, the Paris Île-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH), the National Research Foundation of Korea, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovations, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan, the United States Department of Energy, and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN and CNRS for provision of computational resources. This work was supported by MEXT, JSPS Leading-edge Research Infrastructure Program, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research 26000005, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 2905: JP17H06358, JP17H06361 and JP17H06364, JSPS Core-to-Core Program A. Advanced Research Networks, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) 17H06133, the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, National Research Foundation (NRF) and Computing Infrastructure Project of KISTI-GSDC in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS), AS Grid Center (ASGC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in Taiwan under grants including AS-CDA-105-M06, Advanced Technology Center (ATC) of NAOJ, and Mechanical Engineering Center of KEK. We would like to thank all of the essential workers who put their health at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic, without whom we would not have been able to complete this work. D.An. acknowledges support from an EPSRC fellowship (EP/T017325/1) and NCN grant 2015/18/E/ST9/00577. T.En. is supported by JSPS/MEXT KAKENHI grant numbers 15H00845, 17K18776, and 18H04584. C.M.E. acknowledges support from ANID FONDECYT/Regular 1171421. W.C.G.H. acknowledges support through grant 80NSSC21K0091 from NASA.
Group:LIGO, Astronomy Department, TAPIR
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-SocietyUNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Human Resource Development (India)UNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació, Recerca i TurismeUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Educacío i Universitat del Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d'Innovació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat ValencianaUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
Foundation for Polish ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European CommissionUNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development Funds (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Royal SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)UNSPECIFIED
Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Actions de Recherche Concertees (Communauté Française de Belgique)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)UNSPECIFIED
Île-de-France RegionUNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR)UNSPECIFIED
Research Grants Council of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)26000005
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06358
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06361
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H06364
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H06133
Institute for Cosmic Ray ResearchUNSPECIFIED
University of TokyoUNSPECIFIED
Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI)UNSPECIFIED
Academia SinicaUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)AS-CDA-105-M06
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)UNSPECIFIED
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/T017325/1
National Science Centre (Poland)2015/18/E/ST9/00577
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)15H00845
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17K18776
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H04584
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171421
NASA80NSSC21K0091
Subject Keywords:Gravitational waves – Pulsars – Neutron stars
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP2100069
Issue or Number:1
DOI:10.3847/1538-4357/ac0d52
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210825-184643051
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210825-184643051
Official Citation:R. Abbott et al 2021 ApJ 922 71
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110562
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:30 Aug 2021 21:25
Last Modified:30 Nov 2021 19:54

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