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The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Probing the baryon content of SDSS DR15 galaxies with the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects

Vavagiakis, E. M. and Gallardo, P. A. and Calafut, V. and Amodeo, S. and Aiola, S. and Austermann, J. E. and Battaglia, N. and Battistelli, E. S. and Beall, J. A. and Bean, R. and Bond, J. R. and Calabrese, E. and Choi, S. K. and Cothard, N. F. and Devlin, M. J. and Duell, C. J. and Duff, S. M. and Duivenvoorden, A. J. and Dunkley, J. and Dunner, R. and Ferraro, S. and Guan, Y. and Hill, J. C. and Hilton, G. C. and Hilton, M. and Hložek, R. and Huber, Z. B. and Hubmayr, J. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hughes, J. P. and Koopman, B. J. and Kosowsky, A. and Li, Y. and Lokken, M. and Madhavacheril, M. and McMahon, J. and Moodley, K. and Naess, S. and Nati, F. and Newburgh, L. B. and Niemack, M. D. and Page, L. A. and Partridge, B. and Schaan, E. and Schillaci, A. and Sifón, C. and Spergel, D. N. and Staggs, S. T. and Ullom, J. N. and Vale, L. R. and Van Engelen, A. and Van Lanen, J. and Wollack, E. J. and Xu, Z. (2021) The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Probing the baryon content of SDSS DR15 galaxies with the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects. Physical Review D, 104 (4). Art. No. 043503. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.104.043503.

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We present measurements of the average thermal Sunyaev Zel’dovich (tSZ) effect from optically selected galaxy groups and clusters at high signal-to-noise (up to 12σ) and estimate their baryon content within a 2.1′ radius aperture. Sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR15 catalog overlap with 3,700 sq deg of sky observed by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) from 2008 to 2018 at 150 and 98 GHz (ACT DR5), and 2,089 sq deg of internal linear combination component-separated maps combining ACT and Planck data (ACT DR4). The corresponding optical depths ¯τ, which depend on the baryon content of the halos, are estimated using results from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations assuming an active galactic nuclei feedback radiative cooling model. We estimate the mean mass of the halos in multiple luminosity bins, and compare the tSZ-based ¯τ estimates to theoretical predictions of the baryon content for a Navarro-Frenk-White profile. We do the same for ¯τ estimates extracted from fits to pairwise baryon momentum measurements of the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect (kSZ) for the same dataset obtained in a companion paper. We find that the ¯τ estimates from the tSZ measurements in this work and the kSZ measurements in the companion paper agree within 1σ for two out of the three disjoint luminosity bins studied, while they differ by 2–3σ in the highest luminosity bin. The optical depth estimates account for one-third to all of the theoretically predicted baryon content in the halos across luminosity bins. Potential systematic uncertainties are discussed. The tSZ and kSZ measurements provide a step toward empirical Compton-¯y−¯τ relationships to provide new tests of cluster formation and evolution models.

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Schillaci, A.0000-0002-0512-1042
Additional Information:© 2021 American Physical Society. (Received 4 February 2021; accepted 27 May 2021; published 6 August 2021) E. M. V. acknowledges support from the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1650441. M. D. N. acknowledges support from NSF CAREER Grant No. 1454881. V. C. and R. B. acknowledge support from DOE Grant No. DE-SC0011838, NASA ATP Grant No. 80NSSC18K0695, NASA ROSES Grant No. 12-EUCLID12-0004, and funding related to the Roman High Latitude Survey Science Investigation Team. N. B. acknowledges support from NSF Grant No. AST-1910021, NASA ATP Grant No. 80NSSC18K0695, and from the Research and Technology Development fund at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the project titled “Mapping the Baryonic Majority.” E. C. acknowledges support from the STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowship No. ST/M004856/2 and STFC Consolidated Grant No. ST/S00033X/1, and from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement No. 849169). S. K. C. acknowledges support from NSF Grant No. AST-2001866. J. D. is supported through NSF Grant No. AST-1814971. R. D. thanks CONICYT for Grant No. BASAL CATA AFB-170002. R. H. acknowledges funding from the CIFAR Azrieli Global Scholars program and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. J. P. H. acknowledges funding for SZ cluster studies from NSF Grant No. AST-1615657. K. M. acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa. C. S. acknowledges support from the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo through FONDECYT Iniciación Grant No. 11191125. Z. X. is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through Grants No. AST-0408698, No. AST-0965625, and No. AST-1440226 for the ACT project, as well as Grants No. PHY-0355328, No. PHY-0855887, and No. PHY-1214379. Funding was also provided by Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and a Canada Foundation for Innovation grant to U. B. C. ACT operates in the Parque Astronómico Atacama in northern Chile under the auspices of the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica de Chile. Canadian co-authors acknowledge support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. The Dunlap Institute is funded through an endowment established by the David Dunlap family and the University of Toronto. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High Performance Computing at the University of Utah. SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Astrophysics—Harvard and Smithsonian, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe/University of Tokyo, the Korean Participation Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg, Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik Garching, Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1650441
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0011838
JPL Research and Technology Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M004856/2
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00033X/1
European Research Council (ERC)849169
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)11191125
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)UNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
David Dunlap FamilyUNSPECIFIED
University of TorontoUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210830-203807417
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110617
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:31 Aug 2021 14:20
Last Modified:31 Aug 2021 14:20

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