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AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project. III. Cosmological Zoom-in Simulation of a Milky Way–mass Halo

Roca-Fàbrega, Santi and Kim, Ji-hoon and Hausammann, Loic and Nagamine, Kentaro and Lupi, Alessandro and Powell, Johnny W. and Shimizu, Ikkoh and Ceverino, Daniel and Primack, Joel R. and Quinn, Thomas R. and Revaz, Yves and Velázquez, Héctor and Abel, Tom and Buehlmann, Michael and Dekel, Avishai and Dong, Bili and Hahn, Oliver and Hummels, Cameron and Kim, Ki-won and Smith, Britton D. and Strawn, Clayton and Teyssier, Romain and Turk, Matthew J. (2021) AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project. III. Cosmological Zoom-in Simulation of a Milky Way–mass Halo. Astrophysical Journal, 917 (2). Art. No. 64. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac088a.

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We present a suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations to z = 4 of a 10¹² M_⊙ halo at z = 0, obtained using seven contemporary astrophysical simulation codes (Art-I, Enzo, Ramses, Changa, Gadget-3, Gear, and Gizmo) widely used in the numerical galaxy formation community. The physics prescriptions for gas cooling and heating and star formation are the same as the ones used in our previous Assembling Galaxies of Resolved Anatomy (AGORA) disk comparison but now account for the effects of cosmological processes such as the expansion of the universe, intergalactic gas inflow, and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation emitted by massive stars and quasars. In this work, we introduce the most careful comparison yet of galaxy formation simulations run by different code groups, together with a series of four calibration steps each of which is designed to reduce the number of tunable simulation parameters adopted in the final run. In the first two steps, we methodically calibrate the gas physics, such as cooling and heating, in simulations without star formation. In the third step, we seek agreement on the total stellar mass produced with the common star formation prescription used in the AGORA disk comparison, in stellar-feedback-free simulations. In the last calibration step, we activate stellar feedback, where each code group is asked to set the feedback prescription to as close to the most widely used one in its code community as possible, while aiming for convergence in the stellar mass at z = 4 to the values predicted by semiempirical models. After all the participating code groups successfully complete the calibration steps, we achieve a suite of cosmological simulations with similar mass assembly histories down to z = 4. With numerical accuracy that resolves the internal structure of a target halo (≲100 physical pc at z = 4), we find that the codes overall agree well with one another, e.g., in gas and stellar properties, but also show differences, e.g., in circumgalactic medium (CGM) properties. We argue that, if adequately tested in accordance with our proposed calibration steps and common parameters, high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations can have robust and reproducible results. New code groups are invited to join and enrich this comparison by generating equivalent models or to test the code's compatibility on their own, by adopting the common initial conditions, the common easy-to-implement physics package, and the proposed calibration steps. Further analyses of the zoom-in simulations presented here will be presented in forthcoming reports from the AGORA Collaboration, including studies of the CGM, simulations by additional codes, and results at lower redshift.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemAGORA Collaboration
Roca-Fàbrega, Santi0000-0002-6299-152X
Kim, Ji-hoon0000-0003-4464-1160
Hausammann, Loic0000-0002-4687-4948
Nagamine, Kentaro0000-0001-7457-8487
Lupi, Alessandro0000-0001-6106-7821
Powell, Johnny W.0000-0002-3764-2395
Ceverino, Daniel0000-0002-8680-248X
Primack, Joel R.0000-0001-5091-5098
Abel, Tom0000-0002-5969-1251
Dekel, Avishai0000-0003-4174-0374
Hahn, Oliver0000-0001-9440-1152
Hummels, Cameron0000-0002-3817-8133
Smith, Britton D.0000-0002-6804-630X
Strawn, Clayton0000-0001-9695-4017
Teyssier, Romain0000-0001-7689-0933
Turk, Matthew J.0000-0002-5294-0198
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 March 30; revised 2021 June 2; accepted 2021 June 4; published 2021 August 17. We thank all of our colleagues who participate in the AGORA Project for their collaborative spirit, which has allowed the AGORA Collaboration to remain strong as a platform to foster and launch multiple science-oriented comparison efforts. We thank Aldo Rodríguez-Puebla for sharing results from abundance matching semiempirical models, and Volker Springel for providing the original versions of Gadget-3 to be used in the AGORA Project. We also thank the anonymous referee for insightful comments and suggestions. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a user facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. S.R.-F. acknowledges support from a Spanish postdoctoral fellowship, under grant No. 2017-T2/TIC-5592. His work has been supported by the Madrid Government (Comunidad de Madrid–Spain) under the Multiannual Agreement with Complutense University in the line Program to Stimulate Research for Young Doctors in the context of V PRICIT (Regional Programme of Research and Technological Innovation). He also acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under grant Nos. AYA2016-75808-R, AYA2017-90589-REDT, and S2018/NMT-429, and from CAM-UCM under grant No. PR65/19-22462. J.K. acknowledges support from the Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under project No. SSTF-BA1802-04. His work was also supported by the National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, with supercomputing resources, including technical support (grants KSC-2018-CRE-0052 and KSC-2019-CRE-0163). K.N. acknowledges support from MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JP17H01111, 19H05810, and 20H00180, as well as travel support from Kavli IPMU, World Premier Research Center Initiative, where part of this work was conducted. A.L. acknowledges funding by the MIUR under the grant PRIN 2017-MB8AEZ. D.C. is a Ramon Cajal Researcher and is supported by Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (FEDER) under research grant PGC2018-094975-C21. H.V. acknowledges support from PAPIIT of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) under grant No. IN101918 and also from Centro Nacional de Supercomputo (CNS-IPICYT-CONACYT). The Art-I simulations were performed on the Brigit/Eolo cluster at Centro de Proceso de Datos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, and on the Stócatl supercomputer at Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM. The Ramses simulations were performed on the Miztli supercomputer at LANCAD, UNAM, within the research project LANCAD-UNAM-DGTIC-151 and on Laboratorio Nacional de Supercómputo del Sureste, CONACYT. The Changa simulations were performed on the Atócatl supercomputer at Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, and on the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) allocations TG-AST20020 and TG-MCA94P018. XSEDE is supported by the National Science Foundation grant ACI-1053575. The Gadget3-Osaka simulations and analyses were performed on the XC50 systems at the Center for Computational Astrophysics of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, on Octopus at the Cybermedia Center of Osaka University, and on Oakforest-PACS at the University of Tokyo as part of the HPCI System Research Project (hp190050 and hp200041). The publicly available Enzo and yt codes used in this work are the products of collaborative efforts by many independent scientists from numerous institutions around the world. Their commitment to open science has helped make this work possible.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)2017-T2/TIC-5592
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-75808-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2017-90589-REDT
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)S2018/NMT-429
Universidad Complutense de MadridPR65/19-22462
Samsung Science and Technology FoundationSSTF-BA1802-04
National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking (Korea)KSC-2018-CRE-0052
National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking (Korea)KSC-2019-CRE-0163
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H01111
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19H05810
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20H00180
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the UniverseUNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)2017-MB8AEZ
Ramón y Cajal ProgrammeUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades(MCIU)PGC2018-094975-C21
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)IN101918
Centro Nacional de SupercomputoUNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)UNSPECIFIED
Dirección General de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones (DGTIC)LANCAD-UNAM-DGTIC-151
Subject Keywords:Galaxy formation; Astronomical simulations; Hydrodynamical simulations; Stellar feedback
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Galaxy formation (595); Astronomical simulations (1857); Hydrodynamical simulations (767); Stellar feedback (1602)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210914-225359678
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Santi Roca-Fàbrega et al 2021 ApJ 917 64
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110892
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:16 Sep 2021 21:18
Last Modified:16 Sep 2021 21:18

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