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Quasi-periodic dipping in the ultraluminous X-ray source, NGC 247 ULX-1

Alston, W. N. and Pinto, C. and Barret, D. and D’Aì, A. and Del Santo, M. and Earnshaw, H. and Fabian, A. C. and Fuerst, F. and Kara, E. and Kosec, P. and Middleton, M. J. and Parker, M. L. and Pintore, F. and Robba, A. and Roberts, T. P. and Sathyaprakash, R. and Walton, D. J. and Ambrosi, E. (2021) Quasi-periodic dipping in the ultraluminous X-ray source, NGC 247 ULX-1. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 505 (3). pp. 3722-3729. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1473. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210916-140902654

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Abstract

Most ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are believed to be stellar mass black holes or neutron stars accreting beyond the Eddington limit. Determining the nature of the compact object and the accretion mode from broad-band spectroscopy is currently a challenge, but the observed timing properties provide insight into the compact object and details of the geometry and accretion processes. Here, we report a timing analysis for an 800 ks XMM–Newton campaign on the supersoft ultraluminous X-ray source, NGC 247 ULX-1. Deep and frequent dips occur in the X-ray light curve, with the amplitude increasing with increasing energy band. Power spectra and coherence analysis reveals the dipping preferentially occurs on ∼5 and ∼10 ks time-scales. The dips can be caused by either the occultation of the central X-ray source by an optically thick structure, such as warping of the accretion disc, or from obscuration by a wind launched from the accretion disc, or both. This behaviour supports the idea that supersoft ULXs are viewed close to edge-on to the accretion disc.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab1473DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2104.11163arXivDiscussion Paper
https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/xmm-newton/xsaRelated ItemESA XMM–Newton Science Archive
https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.govRelated ItemNASA HEASARC Archive
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Alston, W. N.0000-0003-2658-6559
Pinto, C.0000-0003-2532-7379
Barret, D.0000-0002-0393-9190
D’Aì, A.0000-0002-5042-1036
Del Santo, M.0000-0002-1793-1050
Earnshaw, H.0000-0001-5857-5622
Fabian, A. C.0000-0002-9378-4072
Fuerst, F.0000-0003-0388-0560
Kara, E.0000-0003-0172-0854
Middleton, M. J.0000-0002-8183-2970
Parker, M. L.0000-0002-8466-7317
Pintore, F.0000-0002-3869-2925
Robba, A.0000-0002-4107-8475
Roberts, T. P.0000-0001-8252-6337
Sathyaprakash, R.0000-0002-5254-3969
Walton, D. J.0000-0001-5819-3552
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Accepted 2021 May 18. Received 2021 May 18; in original form 2021 April 20. Published: 25 May 2021. WNA is supported by an ESA research fellowship. AD, MDS, and FP acknowledge financial contribution from the agreement ASI-INAF n.2017-14-H.0 and INAF main-stream. HPE acknowledges support under NASA contract NNG08FD60C. TPR gratefully acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) as part of the consolidated grant award ST/000244/1. This paper is based on observations obtained with XMM–Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA). Data Availability: All of the data underlying this article are publicly available from ESA’s XMM–Newton Science Archive (XSA; https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/xmm-newton/xsa) and NASA’s HEASARC archive (https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/). Light curves are available from the author upon request.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)2017-14-H.0
NASANNG08FD60C
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/000244/1
Subject Keywords:accretion, accretion discs – X-rays: binaries – X-rays: individual: NGC 247 ULX-1
Issue or Number:3
DOI:10.1093/mnras/stab1473
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210916-140902654
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210916-140902654
Official Citation:W N Alston, C Pinto, D Barret, A D’Aì, M Del Santo, H Earnshaw, A C Fabian, F Fuerst, E Kara, P Kosec, M J Middleton, M L Parker, F Pintore, A Robba, T P Roberts, R Sathyaprakash, D Walton, E Ambrosi, Quasi-periodic dipping in the ultraluminous X-ray source, NGC 247 ULX-1, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 505, Issue 3, August 2021, Pages 3722–3729, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab1473
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:110915
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:16 Sep 2021 15:49
Last Modified:16 Sep 2021 15:49

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