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The TESS-Keck Survey: Science Goals and Target Selection

Chontos, Ashley and Murphy, Joseph M. Akana and MacDougall, Mason G. and Fetherolf, Tara and Van Zandt, Judah and Rubenzahl, Ryan A. and Beard, Corey and Huber, Daniel and Batalha, Natalie M. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Dressing, Courtney D. and Fulton, Benjamin and Howard, Andrew W. and Isaacson, Howard and Kane, Stephen R. and Petigura, Erik A. and Robertson, Paul and Roy, Arpita and Weiss, Lauren M. and Behmard, Aida and Dai, Fei and Dalba, Paul A. and Giacalone, Steven and Hill, Michelle L. and Lubin, Jack and Mayo, Andrew and Močnik, Teo and Polanski, Alex S. and Rosenthal, Lee J. and Scarsdale, Nicholas and Turtelboom, Emma V. and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland and Latham, David W. and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Quinn, Samuel N. and Guerrero, Natalia M. and Collins, Karen A. and Ciardi, David R. and Shporer, Avi and Goeke, Robert F. and Levine, Alan M. and Ting, Eric B. and Bieryla, Allyson and Collins, Kevin I. and Kielkopf, John F. and Barkaoui, Khalid and Benni, Paul and Esparza-Borges, Emma and Conti, Dennis M. and Hooton, Matthew J. and Kagetani, Taiki and Laloum, Didier and Marino, Giuseppe and Massey, Bob and Murgas, Felipe and Papini, Riccardo and Schwarz, Richard P. and Srdoć, Gregor and Stockdale, Chris and Wang, Gavin and Wittrock, Justin M. and Zou, Yujie (2022) The TESS-Keck Survey: Science Goals and Target Selection. Astronomical Journal, 163 (6). Art. No. 297. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac6266.

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The Kepler and TESS missions have demonstrated that planets are ubiquitous. However, the success of these missions heavily depends on ground-based radial velocity (RV) surveys, which combined with transit photometry can yield bulk densities and orbital properties. While most Kepler host stars are too faint for detailed follow-up observations, TESS is detecting planets orbiting nearby bright stars that are more amenable to RV characterization. Here, we introduce the TESS-Keck Survey (TKS), an RV program using ∼100 nights on Keck/HIRES to study exoplanets identified by TESS. The primary survey aims are investigating the link between stellar properties and the compositions of small planets; studying how the diversity of system architectures depends on dynamical configurations or planet multiplicity; identifying prime candidates for atmospheric studies with JWST; and understanding the role of stellar evolution in shaping planetary systems. We present a fully automated target selection algorithm, which yielded 103 planets in 86 systems for the final TKS sample. Most TKS hosts are inactive, solar-like, main-sequence stars (4500 K ≤ T_(eff) <6000 K) at a wide range of metallicities. The selected TKS sample contains 71 small planets (R_p ≤ 4 R⊕), 11 systems with multiple transiting candidates, six sub-day-period planets and three planets that are in or near the habitable zone (S_(inc) ≤ 10 S⊕) of their host star. The target selection described here will facilitate the comparison of measured planet masses, densities, and eccentricities to predictions from planet population models. Our target selection software is publicly available and can be adapted for any survey that requires a balance of multiple science interests within a given telescope allocation.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Chontos, Ashley0000-0003-1125-2564
Murphy, Joseph M. Akana0000-0001-8898-8284
MacDougall, Mason G.0000-0003-2562-9043
Fetherolf, Tara0000-0002-3551-279X
Van Zandt, Judah0000-0002-4290-6826
Rubenzahl, Ryan A.0000-0003-3856-3143
Beard, Corey0000-0001-7708-2364
Huber, Daniel0000-0001-8832-4488
Batalha, Natalie M.0000-0002-7030-9519
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Dressing, Courtney D.0000-0001-8189-0233
Fulton, Benjamin0000-0003-3504-5316
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Robertson, Paul0000-0003-0149-9678
Roy, Arpita0000-0001-8127-5775
Weiss, Lauren M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Behmard, Aida0000-0003-0012-9093
Dai, Fei0000-0002-8958-0683
Dalba, Paul A.0000-0002-4297-5506
Giacalone, Steven0000-0002-8965-3969
Hill, Michelle L.0000-0002-0139-4756
Lubin, Jack0000-0001-8342-7736
Mayo, Andrew0000-0002-7216-2135
Močnik, Teo0000-0003-4603-556X
Polanski, Alex S.0000-0001-7047-8681
Rosenthal, Lee J.0000-0001-8391-5182
Scarsdale, Nicholas0000-0003-3623-7280
Turtelboom, Emma V.0000-0002-1845-2617
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Quinn, Samuel N.0000-0002-8964-8377
Guerrero, Natalia M.0000-0002-5169-9427
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Shporer, Avi0000-0002-1836-3120
Goeke, Robert F.0000-0003-1748-5975
Levine, Alan M.0000-0001-8172-0453
Ting, Eric B.0000-0002-8219-9505
Bieryla, Allyson0000-0001-6637-5401
Collins, Kevin I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Kielkopf, John F.0000-0003-0497-2651
Barkaoui, Khalid0000-0003-1464-9276
Benni, Paul0000-0001-6981-8722
Esparza-Borges, Emma0000-0002-2341-3233
Conti, Dennis M.0000-0003-2239-0567
Hooton, Matthew J.0000-0003-0030-332X
Kagetani, Taiki0000-0002-5331-6637
Marino, Giuseppe0000-0001-8134-0389
Massey, Bob0000-0001-8879-7138
Murgas, Felipe0000-0001-9087-1245
Schwarz, Richard P.0000-0001-8227-1020
Stockdale, Chris0000-0003-2163-1437
Wang, Gavin0000-0003-3092-4418
Wittrock, Justin M.0000-0002-7424-9891
Zou, Yujie0000-0002-5609-4427
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 June 10; revised 2022 March 17; accepted 2022 March 28; published 2022 May 30. This paper is based on data collected by the TESS mission. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. We recognize and acknowledge the cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are deeply grateful to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. We thank all the observers who spent time collecting data over the many years at Keck/HIRES. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts and dedication of the Keck Observatory staff for support of HIRES and remote observing. We thank the University of California and Google for supporting Lick Observatory and the UCO staff for their dedicated work scheduling and operating the telescopes of Lick Observatory. We are grateful to the time assignment committees of the University of California, University of Hawai'i, the California Institute of Technology, and NASA for supporting the TESS-Keck Survey with observing time at Keck Observatory and on the Automated Planet Finder. We thank NASA for funding associated with our Key Strategic Mission Support project. We thank Ken and Gloria Levy, who supported the construction of the Levy Spectrometer on the Automated Planet Finder. A.C., J.M.A.M., R.A.R., A.B., and A.M. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program (DGE 1842402, DGE 1842400, DGE 1745301, DGE 1745301, DGE 1752814). J.M.A.M. also acknowledges the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining Grant No. 1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; his participation in the program has benefited this work. T.F. acknowledges support from the University of California President's Postdoctoral Fellowship Program. D.H. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NSSC18K1585, 80NSSC19K0379), and the National Science Foundation (AST-1717000). I.J.M.C. acknowledges support from the NSF through grant AST-1824644. C.D.D. acknowledges the support of the Hellman Family Faculty Fund, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the David & Lucile Packard Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration via the TESS Guest Investigator Program (80NSSC18K1583). E.A.P. acknowledges the support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. L.M.W. is supported by the Beatrice Watson Parrent Fellowship and NASA ADAP Grant 80NSSC19K0597. P.D. acknowledges support from a National Science Foundation Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1903811. S.G. acknowledges support from NASA FINESST Grant 80NSSC20K1549. E. E-B. acknowledges financial support from the European Union and the State Agency of Investigation of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under the grant PRE2020-093107 of the Pre-Doc Program for the Training of Doctors (FPI-SO) through FSE funds. facility MAST, TESS, Keck I: HIRES. Software: All code used in this paper is available at, with the archived version associated with this paper available at Chontos (2021). We made use of the following publicly available Python modules: astroquery, exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey 2019), evolstate (Huber 2017; Berger et al. 2018), and tesspoint.
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE 1842402
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842400
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1745301
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1752814
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
University of CaliforniaUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Hellman Family Faculty FundUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Beatrice Watson Parrent FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1903811
NASA Earth and Space Science and Technology Fellowship80NSSC20K1549
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN)PRE2020-093107
Subject Keywords:Surveys; Telescopes; Catalogs; Exoplanets; Exoplanet catalogs; Exoplanet systems; Fundamental parameters of stars; Observational astronomy; Photometry; Spectroscopy; Radial velocity; Exoplanet detection methods
Issue or Number:6
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Surveys (1671); Telescopes (1689); Catalogs (205); Exoplanets (498); Exoplanet catalogs (488); Exoplanet systems (484); Fundamental parameters of stars (555); Observational astronomy (1145); Photometry (1234);
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211004-232842917
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ashley Chontos et al 2022 AJ 163 297
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111211
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 Oct 2021 21:58
Last Modified:07 Jun 2022 16:08

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