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The TESS-Keck Survey: Science Goals and Target Selection

Chontos, Ashley and Murphy, Joseph M. Akana and MacDougall, Mason G. and Fetherolf, Tara and Van Zandt, Judah and Rubenzahl, Ryan A. and Beard, Corey and Huber, Daniel and Batalha, Natalie M. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Dressing, Courtney D. and Fulton, Benjamin and Howard, Andrew W. and Isaacson, Howard and Kane, Stephen R. and Petigura, Erik A. and Robertson, Paul and Roy, Arpita and Weiss, Lauren M. and Behmard, Aida and Dai, Fei and Dalba, Paul A. and Giacalone, Steven and Hill, Michelle L. and Lubin, Jack and Mayo, Andrew and Močnik, Teo and Polanski, Alex S. and Rosenthal, Lee J. and Scarsdale, Nicholas and Turtelboom, Emma V. (2021) The TESS-Keck Survey: Science Goals and Target Selection. . (Unpublished)

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Space-based transit missions such as Kepler and TESS have demonstrated that planets are ubiquitous. However, the success of these missions heavily depends on ground-based radial velocity (RV) surveys, which combined with transit photometry can yield bulk densities and orbital properties. While most Kepler host stars are too faint for detailed follow-up observations, TESS is detecting planets orbiting nearby bright stars that are more amenable to RV characterization. Here we introduce the TESS-Keck Survey (TKS), an RV program using ~100 nights on Keck/HIRES to study exoplanets identified by TESS. The primary survey aims are investigating the link between stellar properties and the compositions of small planets; studying how the diversity of system architectures depends on dynamical configurations or planet multiplicity; identifying prime candidates for atmospheric studies with JWST; and understanding the role of stellar evolution in shaping planetary systems. We present a fully-automated target selection algorithm, which yielded 103 planets in 86 systems for the final TKS sample. Most TKS hosts are inactive, solar-like, main-sequence stars (4500 K < T_(eff) < 6000 K) at a wide range of metallicities. The selected TKS sample contains 71 small planets (R)p < 4 R_⊕), 11 systems with multiple transiting candidates, 6 sub-day period planets and 3 planets that are in or near the habitable zone of their host star. The target selection described here will facilitate the comparison of measured planet masses, densities, and eccentricities to predictions from planet population models. Our target selection software is publicly available (at and can be adapted for any survey which requires a balance of multiple science interests within a given telescope allocation.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemTarget selection software
Chontos, Ashley0000-0003-1125-2564
Murphy, Joseph M. Akana0000-0001-8898-8284
MacDougall, Mason G.0000-0003-2562-9043
Fetherolf, Tara0000-0002-3551-279X
Van Zandt, Judah0000-0002-4290-6826
Rubenzahl, Ryan A.0000-0003-3856-3143
Beard, Corey0000-0001-7708-2364
Huber, Daniel0000-0001-8832-4488
Batalha, Natalie M.0000-0002-7030-9519
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Dressing, Courtney D.0000-0001-8189-0233
Fulton, Benjamin0000-0003-3504-5316
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Robertson, Paul0000-0003-0149-9678
Roy, Arpita0000-0001-8127-5775
Weiss, Lauren M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Behmard, Aida0000-0003-0012-9093
Dai, Fei0000-0002-8958-0683
Dalba, Paul A.0000-0002-4297-5506
Giacalone, Steven0000-0002-8965-3969
Hill, Michelle L.0000-0002-0139-4756
Lubin, Jack0000-0001-8342-7736
Mayo, Andrew0000-0002-7216-2135
Močnik, Teo0000-0003-4603-556X
Rosenthal, Lee J.0000-0001-8391-5182
Scarsdale, Nicholas0000-0003-3623-7280
Additional Information:Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) We thank all the observers who spent time collecting data over the many years at Keck/HIRES. We are grateful to the time assignment committees of the University of California, University of Hawai’i, the California Institute of Technology, and NASA for supporting the TESS-Keck Survey with observing time at Keck Observatory and on the Automated Planet Finder. We thank NASA for funding associated with our Key Strategic Mission Support project. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts and dedication of the Keck Observatory staff for support of HIRES and remote observing. We recognize and acknowledge the cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are deeply grateful to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. We thank Ken and Gloria Levy, who supported the construction of the Levy Spectrometer on the Automated Planet Finder. We thank the University of California and Google for supporting Lick Observatory and the UCO staff for their dedicated work scheduling and operating the telescopes of Lick Observatory. This paper is based on data collected by the TESS mission. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by the NASA Explorer Program. A.C., J.M.A.M., R.A.R., A.B., and A.M. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program (DGE 1842402, DGE 1842400, DGE 1745301, DGE 1745301, DGE 1752814). J.M.A.M. also acknowledges the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining Grant No. 1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; his participation in the program has benefited this work. D.H. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NSSC18K1585, 80NSSC19K0379), and the National Science Foundation (AST-1717000). I.J.M.C. acknowledges support from the NSF through grant AST-1824644. C.D.D. acknowledges the support of the Hellman Family Faculty Fund, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the David & Lucile Packard Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration via the TESS Guest Investigator Program (80NSSC18K1583). E.A.P. acknowledges the support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. L.M.W. is supported by the Beatrice Watson Parrent Fellowship and NASA ADAP Grant 80NSSC19K0597. P.D. acknowledges support from a National Science Foundation Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1903811. S.G. acknowledges support from NASA FINESST Grant 80NSSC20K1549. Facilities: MAST, TESS, Keck I: HIRES Software: All code used in this paper is available at We made use of the following publicly-available Python modules: astroquery, exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey 2019), evolstate (Huber 2017; Berger et al. 2018), and tesspoint.
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-406195
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842400
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1745301
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1752814
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Hellman Family Faculty FundUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Beatrice Watson Parrent FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1903811
NASA Earth and Space Science and Technology Fellowship80NSSC20K1549
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211004-232842917
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111211
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 Oct 2021 21:58
Last Modified:07 Oct 2021 21:58

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