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LIGO’s quantum response to squeezed states

McCuller, L. and Dwyer, S. E. and Green, A. C. and Yu, Haocun and Kuns, K. and Barsotti, L. and Blair, C. D. and Brown, D. D. and Effler, A. and Evans, M. and Fernandez-Galiana, A. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Kijbunchoo, N. and Mansell, G. L. and Matichard, F. and Mavalvala, N. and McClelland, D. E. and McRae, T. and Mullavey, A. and Sigg, D. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Tse, M. and Vo, T. and Ward, R. L. and Whittle, C. and Abbott, R. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Ananyeva, A. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Areeda, J. S. and Asali, Y. and Aston, S. M. and Austin, C. and Baer, A. M. and Ball, M. and Ballmer, S. W. and Banagiri, S. and Barker, D. and Bartlett, J. and Berger, B. K. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhattacharjee, D. and Billingsley, G. and Biscans, S. and Blair, R. M. and Bode, N. and Booker, P. and Bork, R. and Bramley, A. and Brooks, A. F. and Buikema, A. and Cahillane, C. and Cannon, K. C. and Chen, X. and Ciobanu, A. A. and Clara, F. and Compton, C. M. and Cooper, S. J. and Corley, K. R. and Countryman, S. T. and Covas, P. B. and Coyne, D. C. and Datrier, L. E. H. and Davis, D. and Di Fronzo, C. and Dooley, K. L. and Driggers, J. C. and Etzel, T. and Evans, T. M. and Feicht, J. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Godwin, P. and Goetz, E. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, R. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hanks, J. and Hanson, J. and Hardwick, T. and Hasskew, R. K. and Heintze, M. C. and Helmling-Cornell, A. F. and Holland, N. A. and Jones, J. D. and Kandhasamy, S. and Karki, S. and Kasprzack, M. and Kawabe, K. and King, P. J. and Kissel, J. S. and Kumar, Rahul and Landry, M. and Lane, B. B. and Lantz, B. and Laxen, M. and Lecoeuche, Y. K. and Leviton, J. and Liu, J. and Lormand, M. and Lundgren, A. P. and Macas, R. and MacInnis, M. and Macleod, D. M. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Martynov, D. V. and Mason, K. and Massinger, T. J. and McCarthy, R. and McCormick, S. and McIver, J. and Mendell, G. and Merfeld, K. and Merilh, E. L. and Meylahn, F. and Mistry, T. and Mittleman, R. and Moreno, G. and Mow-Lowry, C. M. and Mozzon, S. and Nelson, T. J. N. and Nguyen, P. and Nuttall, L. K. and Oberling, J. and Oram, Richard J. and Osthelder, C. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Palamos, J. R. and Parker, W. and Payne, E. and Pele, A. and Penhorwood, R. and Perez, C. J. and Pirello, M. and Radkins, H. and Ramirez, K. E. and Richardson, J. W. and Riles, K. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Romel, C. L. and Romie, J. H. and Ross, M. P. and Ryan, K. and Sadecki, T. and Sanchez, E. J. and Sanchez, L. E. and Saravanan, T. R. and Savage, R. L. and Schaetzl, D. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. M. S. and Schwartz, E. and Sellers, D. and Shaffer, T. and Smith, J. R. and Soni, S. and Sorazu, B. and Spencer, A. P. and Strain, K. A. and Sun, L. and Szczepańczyk, M. J. and Thomas, M. and Thomas, P. and Thorne, K. A. and Toland, K. and Torrie, C. I. and Traylor, G. and Urban, A. L. and Vajente, G. and Valdes, G. and Vander-Hyde, D. C. and Veitch, P. J. and Venkateswara, K. and Venugopalan, G. and Viets, A. D. and Vorvick, C. and Wade, M. and Warner, J. and Weaver, B. and Weiss, R. and Willke, B. and Wipf, C. C. and Xiao, L. and Yamamoto, H. and Yu, Hang and Zhang, L. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. (2021) LIGO’s quantum response to squeezed states. Physical Review D, 104 (6). Art. No. 062006. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/physrevd.104.062006.

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Gravitational wave interferometers achieve their profound sensitivity by combining a Michelson interferometer with optical cavities, suspended masses, and now, squeezed quantum states of light. These states modify the measurement process of the LIGO, VIRGO and GEO600 interferometers to reduce the quantum noise that masks astrophysical signals; thus, improvements to squeezing are essential to further expand our gravitational view of the Universe. Further reducing quantum noise will require both lowering decoherence from losses as well more sophisticated manipulations to counter the quantum back-action from radiation pressure. Both tasks require fully understanding the physical interactions between squeezed light and the many components of km-scale interferometers. To this end, data from both LIGO observatories in observing run three are expressed using frequency-dependent metrics to analyze each detector’s quantum response to squeezed states. The response metrics are derived and used to concisely describe physical mechanisms behind squeezing’s simultaneous interaction with transverse-mode selective optical cavities and the quantum radiation pressure noise of suspended mirrors. These metrics and related analysis are broadly applicable for cavity-enhanced optomechanics experiments that incorporate external squeezing, and—for the first time—give physical descriptions of every feature so far observed in the quantum noise of the LIGO detectors.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
McCuller, L.0000-0003-0851-0593
Yu, Haocun0000-0002-7597-098X
Kuns, K.0000-0003-0630-3902
Barsotti, L.0000-0001-9819-2562
Blair, C. D.0000-0003-4566-6888
Effler, A.0000-0001-8242-3944
Evans, M.0000-0001-8459-4499
Fernandez-Galiana, A.0000-0002-8940-9261
Fritschel, P.0000-0003-1983-3187
Kijbunchoo, N.0000-0002-2874-1228
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
Mavalvala, N.0000-0003-0219-9706
Mullavey, A.0000-0002-8123-7338
Sigg, D.0000-0003-4606-6526
Slagmolen, B. J. J.0000-0002-2471-3828
Tse, M.0000-0003-1510-4921
Whittle, C.0000-0002-8833-7438
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Arai, K.0000-0001-8916-8915
Austin, C.0000-0001-5488-9480
Banagiri, S.0000-0001-7852-7484
Berger, B. K.0000-0002-4845-8737
Betzwieser, J.0000-0003-1533-9229
Bhattacharjee, D.0000-0001-6623-9506
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, S.0000-0002-9635-7527
Bode, N.0000-0002-7101-9396
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Buikema, A.0000-0001-9409-5757
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Datrier, L. E. H.0000-0002-0290-3129
Davis, D.0000-0001-5620-6751
Feicht, J.0000-0001-5223-7091
Fulda, P.0000-0003-2564-2045
Giaime, J. A.0000-0002-3531-817X
Goetz, E.0000-0003-2666-721X
Gray, C.0000-0002-5556-9873
Gray, R.0000-0002-5556-9873
Helmling-Cornell, A. F.0000-0002-7709-8638
Kandhasamy, S.0000-0002-4825-6764
Kasprzack, M.0000-0003-4618-5939
Kawabe, K.0000-0001-5205-9109
Kissel, J. S.0000-0002-1702-9577
Lantz, B.0000-0002-7404-4845
Laxen, M.0000-0001-7515-9639
Macas, R.0000-0002-6096-8297
MacInnis, M.0000-0001-8733-9207
Macleod, D. M.0000-0002-1395-8694
Márka, S.0000-0002-3957-1324
Márka, Z.0000-0003-1306-5260
Massinger, T. J.0000-0002-3429-5025
McIver, J.0000-0003-0316-1355
Meylahn, F.0000-0002-9556-142X
Mozzon, S.0000-0002-8855-2509
Nguyen, P.0000-0001-9223-5541
Parker, W.0000-0002-7711-4423
Pele, A.0000-0002-1873-3769
Pirello, M.0000-0002-2857-4642
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Riles, K.0000-0002-6418-5812
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Sanchez, L. E.0000-0001-6903-5736
Schnabel, R.0000-0003-2896-4218
Schwartz, E.0000-0001-8922-7794
Soni, S.0000-0003-3856-8534
Sorazu, B.0000-0002-6178-3198
Sun, L.0000-0001-7959-892X
Szczepańczyk, M. J.0000-0002-6167-6149
Vajente, G.0000-0002-7656-6882
Valdes, G.0000-0001-5411-380X
Venugopalan, G.0000-0003-4414-9918
Vorvick, C.0000-0003-1591-3358
Wade, M.0000-0002-5703-4469
Weaver, B.0000-0002-2242-0327
Willke, B.0000-0003-0524-2925
Xiao, L.0000-0003-2703-449X
Yamamoto, H.0000-0001-6919-9570
Yu, Hang0000-0002-6011-6190
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Additional Information:© 2021 American Physical Society. Received 26 May 2021; accepted 19 July 2021; published 13 September 2021. LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the National Science Foundation, and operates under Cooperative Agreement No. PHY-1764464. Advanced LIGO was built under Grant No. PHY-0823459. The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1122374
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211011-150538228
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111345
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:11 Oct 2021 18:40
Last Modified:26 Oct 2022 23:07

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