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The ALPINE-ALMA [CII] survey. Dust mass budget in the early Universe

Pozzi, F. and Calura, F. and Fudamoto, Y. and Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. and Gruppioni, C. and Talia, M. and Zamorani, G. and Béthermin, M. and Cimatti, A. and Enia, A. and Khusanova, Y. and Decarli, R. and Le Fèvre, O. and Capak, P. and Cassata, P. and Faisst, A. L. and Yan, L. and Schaerer, D. and Silverman, J. and Bardelli, S. and Boquien, M. and Enia, A. and Narayanan, D. and Ginolfi, M. and Hathi, N. P. and Jones, G. C. and Koekemoer, A. M. and Lemaux, B. C. and Loiacono, F. and Maiolino, R. and Riechers, D. A. and Rodighiero, G. and Romano, M. and Vallini, L. and Vergani, D. and Zucca, E. (2021) The ALPINE-ALMA [CII] survey. Dust mass budget in the early Universe. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 653 . Art. No. A84. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202040258.

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Aims. The dust content of normal galaxies and the dust mass density (DMD) at high-z (z > 4) are unconstrained given the source confusion and the sensitivity limitations of previous observations. The ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE), which targeted 118 ultra-violet (UV)-selected star-forming galaxies at 4.4 < z < 5.9, provides a new opportunity to tackle this issue for the first time with a statistically robust dataset. Methods. We exploited the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) fluxes of 23 galaxies individually detected in their continuum emission, as well as stacked continuum images, to measure the dust content of the 118 UV-selected ALPINE galaxies. We focused on the dust scaling relations and, by comparison with predictions from chemical evolution models, we probed the evolutionary stage of UV-selected galaxies at high-z. By using the observed correlation between the UV luminosity and the dust mass, we estimated the DMD of UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 5, weighting the galaxies by means of the UV luminosity function. The derived DMD is compared with the value we estimated from ten ALPINE galaxies blindly detected in the FIR continuum, at the redshift of the ALPINE targets. Results. Our ALMA survey allows the exploration for the first time of the dust content in normal star-forming galaxies at z > 4 in a statistically robust sample of sources. The comparison of the observed dust scaling relations with chemical evolution models suggests that ALPINE galaxies are not likely progenitors of disc galaxies, but of intermediate- and low-mass proto-spheroids, resulting in present-day bulges of spiral or elliptical galaxies. Interestingly, this conclusion is in line with the independent morphological analysis that shows that the majority (∼70%) of the dust-continuum detected galaxies have a disturbed morphology. The DMD obtained at z ∼ 5 from UV-selected sources is ∼30% of the value obtained from blind FIR-selected sources, showing that the UV selection misses the most dust-rich, UV-obscured galaxies.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Pozzi, F.0000-0002-7412-647X
Calura, F.0000-0002-6175-0871
Fudamoto, Y.0000-0001-7440-8832
Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.0000-0003-0348-2917
Gruppioni, C.0000-0002-5836-4056
Talia, M.0000-0003-4352-2063
Zamorani, G.0000-0002-2318-301X
Béthermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
Cimatti, A.0000-0002-4409-5633
Enia, A.0000-0002-0200-2857
Khusanova, Y.0000-0002-7220-397X
Decarli, R.0000-0002-2662-8803
Le Fèvre, O.0000-0001-5891-2596
Capak, P.0000-0003-3578-6843
Cassata, P.0000-0002-6716-4400
Faisst, A. L.0000-0002-9382-9832
Yan, L.0000-0003-1710-9339
Schaerer, D.0000-0001-7144-7182
Silverman, J.0000-0002-0000-6977
Bardelli, S.0000-0002-8900-0298
Boquien, M.0000-0003-0946-6176
Enia, A.0000-0002-0200-2857
Narayanan, D.0000-0002-7064-4309
Ginolfi, M.0000-0002-8231-821X
Hathi, N. P.0000-0001-6145-5090
Jones, G. C.0000-0002-0267-9024
Koekemoer, A. M.0000-0002-6610-2048
Lemaux, B. C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Loiacono, F.0000-0002-8858-6784
Maiolino, R.0000-0002-4985-3819
Riechers, D. A.0000-0001-9585-1462
Rodighiero, G.0000-0002-9415-2296
Romano, M.0000-0002-9948-3916
Vallini, L.0000-0002-3258-3672
Vergani, D.0000-0003-0898-2216
Zucca, E.0000-0002-5845-8132
Additional Information:© ESO 2021. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received: 29 December 2020; Accepted: 25 May 2021; Published online 15 September 2021. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Le Fèvre, PI of the ALPINE survey. We are grateful to an anonymous referee for valuable suggestions that improved the paper. F. P. thanks Simone Bianchi for useful discussion on the dust properties. We acknowledge support from grant PRIN MIUR 2017- 20173ML3WW_s. F. P. also acknowledges support from the INAF man-stream program ‘Gas-DustPedia: A definitive view of the ISM in the Local Universe’. F.C. also acknowledges support from the INAF main-stream ( D. R. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under grant numbers AST-1614213 and AST-1910107. D. R. also acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers. G. C. J and R. M acknowledge ERC advanced grant 695671 ‘QUENCH’ and support by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)2017-20173ML3WW_s
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)695671
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:dust, extinction – galaxies: ISM – galaxies: high-redshift
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211011-155239475
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The ALPINE-ALMA [CII] survey - Dust mass budget in the early Universe. F. Pozzi, F. Calura, Y. Fudamoto, M. Dessauges-Zavadsky, C. Gruppioni, M. Talia, G. Zamorani, M. Bethermin, A. Cimatti, A. Enia, Y. Khusanova, R. Decarli, O. Le Fèvre, P. Capak, P. Cassata, A. L. Faisst, L. Yan, D. Schaerer, J. Silverman, S. Bardelli, M. Boquien, A. Enia, D. Narayanan, M. Ginolfi, N. P. Hathi, G. C. Jones, A. M. Koekemoer, B. C. Lemaux, F. Loiacono, R. Maiolino, D. A. Riechers, G. Rodighiero, M. Romano, L. Vallini, D. Vergani and E. Zucca. A&A, 653 (2021) A84; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111348
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:11 Oct 2021 17:59
Last Modified:11 Oct 2021 17:59

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