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TOI-1278 B: SPIRou Unveils a Rare Brown Dwarf Companion in Close-in Orbit around an M Dwarf

Artigau, Étienne and Hébrard, Guillaume and Cadieux, Charles and Vandal, Thomas and Cook, Neil J. and Doyon, René and Gagné, Jonathan and Moutou, Claire and Martioli, Eder and Frasca, Antonio and Jahandar, Farbod and Lafrenière, David and Malo, Lison and Donati, Jean-François and Cortés-Zuleta, Pía and Boisse, Isabelle and Delfosse, Xavier and Carmona, Andres and Fouqué, Pascal and Morin, Julien and Rowe, Jason and Marino, Giuseppe and Papini, Riccardo and Ciardi, David R. and Lund, Michael B. and Martins, Jorge H. C. and Pelletier, Stefan and Arnold, Luc and Bouchy, François and Forveille, Thierry and Santos, Nuno C. and Bonfils, Xavier and Figueira, Pedro and Fausnaugh, Michael and Ricker, George and Latham, David W. and Seager, Sara and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Ting, Eric B. and Torres, Guillermo and da Silva, João Gomes (2021) TOI-1278 B: SPIRou Unveils a Rare Brown Dwarf Companion in Close-in Orbit around an M Dwarf. Astronomical Journal, 162 (4). Art. No. 144. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac096d.

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We present the discovery of an 18.5 ± 0.5 M_(Jup) brown dwarf (BD) companion to the M0V star TOI–1278. The system was first identified through a percent-deep transit in Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite photometry; further analysis showed it to be a grazing transit of a Jupiter-sized object. Radial velocity (RV) follow-up with the SPIRou near-infrared high-resolution velocimeter and spectropolarimeter in the framework of the 300-night SPIRou Legacy Survey carried out at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope led to the detection of a Keplerian RV signal with a semi-amplitude of 2306 ± 10 m s⁻¹ in phase with the 14.5 day transit period, with a slight but nonzero eccentricity. The intermediate-mass ratio (M⋆/M_(comp) ∼ 31) is unique for having such a short separation (0.095 ± 0.001 au) among known M-dwarf systems. Interestingly, M-dwarf–BD systems with similar mass ratios exist with separations of tens to thousands of astronomical unit.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Artigau, Étienne0000-0003-3506-5667
Hébrard, Guillaume0000-0001-5450-7067
Cook, Neil J.0000-0003-4166-4121
Doyon, René0000-0001-5485-4675
Gagné, Jonathan0000-0002-2592-9612
Jahandar, Farbod0000-0003-0029-2835
Lafrenière, David0000-0002-6780-4252
Malo, Lison0000-0002-8786-8499
Donati, Jean-François0000-0001-5541-2887
Cortés-Zuleta, Pía0000-0002-6174-4666
Boisse, Isabelle0000-0001-8388-8399
Delfosse, Xavier0000-0001-5099-7978
Carmona, Andres0000-0003-2471-1299
Fouqué, Pascal0000-0002-1436-7351
Morin, Julien0000-0002-4996-6901
Rowe, Jason0000-0002-5904-1865
Marino, Giuseppe0000-0001-8134-0389
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Lund, Michael B.0000-0003-2527-1598
Pelletier, Stefan0000-0002-8573-805X
Arnold, Luc0000-0002-0111-1234
Bouchy, François0000-0002-7613-393X
Forveille, Thierry0000-0003-0536-4607
Santos, Nuno C.0000-0003-4422-2919
Bonfils, Xavier0000-0001-9003-8894
Figueira, Pedro0000-0001-8504-283X
Fausnaugh, Michael0000-0002-9113-7162
Ricker, George0000-0003-2058-6662
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, Sara0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Ting, Eric B.0000-0002-8219-9505
Torres, Guillermo0000-0002-5286-0251
da Silva, João Gomes0000-0001-8056-9202
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 March 16; revised 2021 June 7; accepted 2021 June 7; published 2021 September 16. Based on observations obtained at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, which is operated from the summit of Maunakea by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. The observations at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope were performed with care and respect from the summit of Maunakea, which is a significant cultural and historic site. This work has been carried out within the framework of the National Centre of Competence in Research PlanetS supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. J.F.D. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the H2020 research & innovation program (grant #740651 NewWorlds). This work was supported by FCT—Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through national funds and by FEDER through COMPETE2020—Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização by these grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019; UIDB/04434/2020; UIDP/04434/2020; PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113; PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953. J.H.C.M. is supported in the form of a work contract funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) with the reference DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0007, and also supported from FCT through national funds and by FEDER-Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional through COMPETE2020-Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização for these grants UIDB/04434/2020 & UIDP/04434/2020, PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113, PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953, PTDC/FIS-AST/29942/2017. X.D., T.F., and I.B. received funding from the French Programme National de Physique Stellaire (PNPS) and the Programme National de Planétologie (PNP) of CNRS (INSU). X.D., T.F., and I.B. acknowledge funding from the French National Research Agency (ANR) under contract No. ANR-18-CE31-0019 (SPlaSH). This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission that are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System. This research made use of matplotlib, a Python library for publication quality graphics (Hunter 2007). This research made use of SciPy (SciPy 1.0 Contributors et al. 2020). This work made use of the IPython package (Perez & Granger 2007). This research made use of Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (The Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018). This research made use of NumPy (Harris et al. 2020). This research made use of TOPCAT, an interactive graphical viewer and editor for tabular data (Taylor 2005). This research made use of Astroquery (Ginsburg et al. 2019). This research made use of ds9, a tool for data visualization supported by the Chandra X-ray Science Center (CXC) and the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Center (HEASARC) with support from the JWST Mission office at the Space Telescope Science Institute for three-dimensional visualization. Facility: CFHT(SPIRou). - Software: astropy (Price-Whelan et al. 2018).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)740651
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UID/FIS/04434/2019
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDP/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0007
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDP/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/29942/2017
Programme National de Physique Stellaire (PNPS)UNSPECIFIED
Programme National de Planetologie (PNP)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-18-CE31-0019
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Brown dwarfs – Radial velocity – Transit photometry – Transits – M dwarf stars
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211011-173801050
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Étienne Artigau et al 2021 AJ 162 144
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111352
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:11 Oct 2021 17:53
Last Modified:11 Oct 2021 17:53

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