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TOI-3362b: A Proto Hot Jupiter Undergoing High-eccentricity Tidal Migration

Dong, Jiayin and Huang, Chelsea X. and Zhou, George and Dawson, Rebekah I. and Rodriguez, Joseph E. and Eastman, Jason D. and Collins, Karen A. and Quinn, Samuel N. and Shporer, Avi and Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. and Wang, Songhu and Beatty, Thomas and Jackson, Jonathon M. and Collins, Kevin I. and Abe, Lyu and Suarez, Olga and Crouzet, Nicolas and Mékarnia, Djamel and Dransfield, Georgina and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Stockdale, Chris and Barkaoui, Khalid and Heitzmann, Alexis and Wright, Duncan J. and Addison, Brett C. and Wittenmyer, Robert A. and Okumura, Jack and Bowler, Brendan P. and Horner, Jonathan and Kane, Stephen R. and Kielkopf, John and Liu, Huigen and Plavchan, Peter and Mengel, Matthew W. and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland and Latham, David W. and Seager, S. and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Christiansen, Jessie L. and Paegert, Martin (2021) TOI-3362b: A Proto Hot Jupiter Undergoing High-eccentricity Tidal Migration. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 920 (1). Art. No. L16. ISSN 2041-8205. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ac2600.

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High-eccentricity tidal migration is a possible way for giant planets to be placed in short-period orbits. If this happens often, one would expect to catch proto hot Jupiters on highly elliptical orbits undergoing high-eccentricity tidal migration. As of yet, few such systems have been discovered. Here, we introduce TOI-3362b (TIC-464300749b), an 18.1 day, 5 M_(Jup) planet orbiting a main-sequence F-type star that is likely undergoing high-eccentricity tidal migration. The orbital eccentricity is 0.815_(-0.032)^(+0.023). With a semimajor axis of 0.153 _(-0.003)^(+0.002) au, the planet's orbit is expected to shrink to a final orbital radius of 0.051_(-0.006)^(+0.008) au after complete tidal circularization. Several mechanisms could explain the extreme value of the planet's eccentricity, such as planet–planet scattering and secular interactions. Such hypotheses can be tested with follow-up observations of the system, e.g., measuring the stellar obliquity and searching for companions in the system with precise, long-term radial-velocity observations. The variation in the planet's equilibrium temperature as it orbits the host star and the tidal heating at periapse make this planet an intriguing target for atmospheric modeling and observation. Because the planet's orbital period of 18.1 days is near the limit of TESS's period sensitivity, even a few such discoveries suggest that proto hot Jupiters may be quite common.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Dong, Jiayin0000-0002-3610-6953
Huang, Chelsea X.0000-0003-0918-7484
Zhou, George0000-0002-4891-3517
Dawson, Rebekah I.0000-0001-9677-1296
Rodriguez, Joseph E.0000-0001-8812-0565
Eastman, Jason D.0000-0003-3773-5142
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Quinn, Samuel N.0000-0002-8964-8377
Shporer, Avi0000-0002-1836-3120
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.0000-0002-5510-8751
Wang, Songhu0000-0002-7846-6981
Beatty, Thomas0000-0002-9539-4203
Jackson, Jonathon M.0000-0002-0323-4828
Collins, Kevin I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Suarez, Olga0000-0002-3503-3617
Crouzet, Nicolas0000-0001-7866-8738
Mékarnia, Djamel0000-0001-5000-7292
Dransfield, Georgina0000-0002-3937-630X
Jensen, Eric L. N.0000-0002-4625-7333
Stockdale, Chris0000-0003-2163-1437
Barkaoui, Khalid0000-0003-1464-9276
Heitzmann, Alexis0000-0002-8091-7526
Wright, Duncan J.0000-0001-7294-5386
Addison, Brett C.0000-0003-3216-0626
Wittenmyer, Robert A.0000-0001-9957-9304
Okumura, Jack0000-0002-4876-8540
Bowler, Brendan P.0000-0003-2649-2288
Horner, Jonathan0000-0002-1160-7970
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Kielkopf, John0000-0003-0497-2651
Liu, Huigen0000-0001-5162-1753
Plavchan, Peter0000-0002-8864-1667
Mengel, Matthew W.0000-0002-7830-6822
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Christiansen, Jessie L.0000-0002-8035-4778
Paegert, Martin0000-0001-8120-7457
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 July 5; revised 2021 September 8; accepted 2021 September 11; published 2021 October 7. We thank the referee for a helpful report and in particular for comments that improved the discussion of the work. We thank Alex Venner for a helpful discussion on the interpretation of the Gaia astrometry. This research made use of exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2019, 2021) and its dependencies (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018; Kipping 2013; Salvatier et al. 2016; Theano Development Team 2016; Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017, 2019; Foreman-Mackey 2018; Luger et al. 2019; Agol et al. 2020). Computations for this research were performed on the Pennsylvania State University's Institute for CyberScience Advanced CyberInfrastructure (ICS-ACI). This content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views of the Institute for CyberScience. The Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds is supported by the Pennsylvania State University and the Eberly College of Science. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Part of the LCOGT telescope time was granted by NOIRLab through the Mid-Scale Innovations Program (MSIP). MSIP is funded by NSF. This research has used data from the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5 m telescope, which is operated as part of the SMARTS Consortium by RECONS ( members Todd Henry, Hodari James, Wei-Chun Jao, and Leonardo Paredes. At the telescope, observations were carried out by Roberto Aviles and Rodrigo Hinojosa. Data presented herein were obtained with the MINERVA-Australis facility at the Mt. Kent Observatory from telescope time allocated through the NN-EXPLORE program. NN-EXPLORE is a scientific partnership of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. The CTIO/SMARTS 1.5 m and MINERVA-Australis telescope time were granted by the NOIRLab program 2021A-0147 (PI: J. Dong). This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. We acknowledge the use of TESS High-Level Science Products (HLSP) produced by the Quick-Look Pipeline (QLP) at the TESS Science Office at MIT, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This research received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement n° 803193/BEBOP), and from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC; grant n° ST/S00193X/1). This work makes use of observations from the ASTEP telescope. ASTEP benefited from the support of the French and Italian polar agencies IPEV and PNRA in the framework of the Concordia station program and from Idex UCAJEDI (ANR-15-IDEX-01). MINERVA-Australis is supported by Australian Research Council LIEF grant LE160100001, Discovery grant DP180100972, Mount Cuba Astronomical Foundation, and institutional partners University of Southern Queensland, UNSW Sydney, MIT, Nanjing University, George Mason University, University of Louisville, University of California Riverside, University of Florida, and The University of Texas at Austin. We respectfully acknowledge the traditional custodians of all lands throughout Australia, and recognise their continued cultural and spiritual connection to the land, waterways, cosmos, and community. We pay our deepest respects to all Elders, ancestors and descendants of the Giabal, Jarowair, and Kambuwal nations, upon whose lands the Minerva-Australis facility at Mt Kent is situated. We gratefully acknowledge support by NASA XRP 80NSSC18K0355 and NASA TESS GO 80NSSC18K1695. Facility: TESS, Gaia, LCOGT, ASTEP, CTIO:1.5 m CHIRON, Minerva-Australis, Exoplanet Archive. Software: ArviZ (Kumar et al. 2019), AstroImageJ (Collins et al. 2017), astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), celerite (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017; Foreman-Mackey 2018), exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2021), Jupyter (Kluyver et al. 2016), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007; Droettboom et al. 2016), NumPy (van der Walt et al. 2011; Harris et al. 2020), pandas (McKinney 2010), PyMC3 (Salvatier et al. 2016), SciPy (Virtanen et al. 2020), starry (Luger et al. 2019), TAPIR (Jensen 2013), Theano (Theano Development Team 2016), EXOFASTv2 (Eastman et al. 2013, 2019).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Pennsylvania State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Eberly College of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)803193
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00193X/1
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-15-IDEX-01
Australian Research CouncilLE160100001
Australian Research CouncilDP180100972
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet astronomy; Hot Jupiters; Transit photometry; Radial velocity; Exoplanet migration
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet astronomy (486); Hot Jupiters (753); Transit photometry (1709); Radial velocity (1332); Exoplanet migration (2205)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211012-211828207
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jiayin Dong et al 2021 ApJL 920 L16
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111381
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:13 Oct 2021 14:33
Last Modified:13 Oct 2021 14:33

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