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Spitzer’s Last Look at Extragalactic Explosions: Long-term Evolution of Interacting Supernovae

Szalai, Tamás and Fox, Ori D. and Arendt, Richard G. and Dwek, Eli and Andrews, Jennifer E. and Clayton, Geoffrey C. and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Johansson, Joel and Kelly, Patrick L. and Krafton, Kelsie and Marston, A. P. and Mauerhan, Jon C. and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. (2021) Spitzer’s Last Look at Extragalactic Explosions: Long-term Evolution of Interacting Supernovae. Astrophysical Journal, 919 (1). Art. No. 17. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac0e2b.

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Here we present new, yet final, mid-infrared (mid-IR) data for supernovae (SNe) based on measurements with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Comparing our recent 3.6 and 4.5 μm photometry with previously published mid-IR and further multiwavelength data sets, we were able to draw some conclusions about the origin and heating mechanism of the dust in these SNe or in their environments, as well as about possible connection with circumstellar matter (CSM) originating from pre-explosion mass-loss events in the progenitor stars. We also present new results regarding both certain SN classes and single objects. We highlight the mid-IR homogeneity of SNe Ia-CSM, which may be a hint of their common progenitor type and of their basically uniform circumstellar environments. Regarding single objects, it is worth highlighting the late-time interacting Type Ib SNe 2003gk and 2004dk, for which we present the first-ever mid-IR data, which seem to be consistent with clues of ongoing CSM interaction detected in other wavelength ranges. Our current study suggests that long-term mid-IR follow-up observations play a key role in a better understanding of both pre- and post-explosion processes in SNe and their environments. While Spitzer is not available anymore, the expected unique data from the James Webb Space Telescope, as well as long-term near-IR follow-up observations of dusty SNe, can bring us closer to the hidden details of this topic.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Szalai, Tamás0000-0003-4610-1117
Fox, Ori D.0000-0003-2238-1572
Arendt, Richard G.0000-0001-8403-8548
Dwek, Eli0000-0001-8033-1181
Andrews, Jennifer E.0000-0003-0123-0062
Clayton, Geoffrey C.0000-0002-0141-7436
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Johansson, Joel0000-0001-5975-290X
Kelly, Patrick L.0000-0003-3142-997X
Marston, A. P.0000-0001-5788-5258
Mauerhan, Jon C.0000-0002-7555-8741
Van Dyk, Schuyler D.0000-0001-9038-9950
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 May 12; revised 2021 June 22; accepted 2021 June 22; published 2021 September 17. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which was operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive and NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which are both operated by JPL/Caltech, under contract with NASA; the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France; the Supernova X-Ray Database (SNaX) funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis program grant NNX14AR63G awarded to the University of Chicago; and the Open Supernova Catalog. We acknowledge the availability of the SAO/NASA Astrophysical Data System (ADS) services. This project has been supported by the GINOP-2-3-2-15-2016-00033 project of the National Research, Development and Innovation Office of Hungary (NKFIH) funded by the European Union, and by NKFIH/OTKA FK-134432 grant. T.S. is supported by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and by the New National Excellence Program (UNKP-20-5) of the Ministry for Innovation and Technology of Hungary from the source of the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund. A.V.F. is grateful for support from the U.C. Berkeley Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (in which he is a Senior Miller Fellow), the TABASGO Foundation, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, and many other individual donors. R.G.A. was supported by NASA under award number 80GSFC21M0002. Facility: Spitzer(IRAC). - Software: IRAF.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary)GINOP-2-3-2-15-2016-00033
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)NKFIH/OTKA FK-134432
Hungarian Academy of SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Ministry for Innovation and Technology (Hungary)UNKP-20-5
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Supernovae; Infrared astronomy; Infrared telescopes; Circumstellar matter; Circumstellar dust
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Supernovae (1668); Infrared astronomy (786); Infrared telescopes (794); Circumstellar matter (241); Circumstellar dust (236)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211014-170553561
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Tamás Szalai et al 2021 ApJ 919 17
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111433
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 Oct 2021 22:46
Last Modified:18 Oct 2021 22:46

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