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TOI-1749: an M dwarf with a Trio of Planets including a Near-resonant Pair

Fukui, A. and Korth, J. and Livingston, J. H. and Twicken, J. D. and Osorio, M. R. Zapatero and Jenkins, J. M. and Mori, M. and Murgas, F. and Ogihara, M. and Narita, N. and Pallé, E. and Stassun, K. G. and Nowak, G. and Ciardi, D. R. and Alvarez-Hernandez, L. and Béjar, V. J. S. and Casasayas-Barris, N. and Crouzet, N. and de Leon, J. P. and Esparza-Borges, E. and Hidalgo Soto, D. and Isogai, K. and Kawauchi, K. and Klagyivik, P. and Kodama, T. and Kurita, S. and Kusakabe, N. and Luque, R. and Madrigal-Aguado, A. and Montanes Rodriguez, P. and Morello, G. and Nishiumi, T. and Orell-Miquel, J. and Oshagh, M. and Parviainen, H. and Sánchez-Benavente, M. and Stangret, M. and Terada, Y. and Watanabe, N. and Chen, G. and Tamura, M. and Bosch-Cabot, P. and Bowen, M. and Eastridge, K. and Freour, L. and Gonzales, E. and Guerra, P. and Jundiyeh, Y. and Kim, T. K. and Kroer, L. V. and Levine, A. M. and Morgan, E. H. and Reefe, M. and Tronsgaard, R. and Wedderkopp, C. K. and Wittrock, J. and Collins, K. A. and Hesse, K. and Latham, D. W. and Ricker, G. R. and Seager, S. and Vanderspek, R. and Winn, J. and Bachelet, E. and Bowman, M. and McCully, C. and Daily, M. and Harbeck, D. and Volgenau, N. H. (2021) TOI-1749: an M dwarf with a Trio of Planets including a Near-resonant Pair. Astronomical Journal, 162 (4). Art. No. 167. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac13a5.

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We report the discovery of one super-Earth- (TOI-1749b) and two sub-Neptune-sized planets (TOI-1749c and TOI-1749d) transiting an early M dwarf at a distance of 100 pc, which were first identified as planetary candidates using data from the TESS photometric survey. We have followed up this system from the ground by means of multiband transit photometry, adaptive optics imaging, and low-resolution spectroscopy, from which we have validated the planetary nature of the candidates. We find that TOI-1749b, c, and d have orbital periods of 2.39, 4.49, and 9.05 days, and radii of 1.4, 2.1, and 2.5 R_⊕, respectively. We also place 95% confidence upper limits on the masses of 57, 14, and 15 M_⊕ for TOI-1749b, c, and d, respectively, from transit timing variations. The periods, sizes, and tentative masses of these planets are in line with a scenario in which all three planets initially had a hydrogen envelope on top of a rocky core, and only the envelope of the innermost planet has been stripped away by photoevaporation and/or core-powered mass-loss mechanisms. These planets are similar to other planetary trios found around M dwarfs, such as TOI-175b,c,d and TOI-270b,c,d, in the sense that the outer pair has a period ratio within 1% of 2. Such a characteristic orbital configuration, in which an additional planet is located interior to a near 2:1 period-ratio pair, is relatively rare around FGK dwarfs.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Fukui, A.0000-0002-4909-5763
Korth, J.0000-0002-0076-6239
Livingston, J. H.0000-0002-4881-3620
Twicken, J. D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Osorio, M. R. Zapatero0000-0002-6737-5267
Jenkins, J. M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Mori, M.0000-0003-1368-6593
Murgas, F.0000-0001-9087-1245
Ogihara, M.0000-0002-8300-7990
Narita, N.0000-0001-8511-2981
Pallé, E.0000-0003-0987-1593
Stassun, K. G.0000-0002-3481-9052
Nowak, G.0000-0002-7031-7754
Ciardi, D. R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Béjar, V. J. S.0000-0002-5086-4232
Casasayas-Barris, N.0000-0002-2891-8222
Crouzet, N.0000-0001-7866-8738
de Leon, J. P.0000-0002-6424-3410
Esparza-Borges, E.0000-0002-2341-3233
Hidalgo Soto, D.0000-0002-7340-6963
Isogai, K.0000-0002-6480-3799
Kawauchi, K.0000-0003-1205-5108
Kodama, T.0000-0001-9032-5826
Kusakabe, N.0000-0001-9194-1268
Luque, R.0000-0002-4671-2957
Madrigal-Aguado, A.0000-0002-9510-0893
Morello, G.0000-0002-4262-5661
Nishiumi, T.0000-0003-1510-8981
Orell-Miquel, J.0000-0003-2066-8959
Oshagh, M.0000-0002-0715-8789
Parviainen, H.0000-0001-5519-1391
Sánchez-Benavente, M.0000-0003-2693-279X
Stangret, M.0000-0002-1812-8024
Terada, Y.0000-0003-2887-6381
Watanabe, N.0000-0002-7522-8195
Chen, G.0000-0003-0740-5433
Tamura, M.0000-0002-6510-0681
Guerra, P.0000-0002-4308-2339
Kim, T. K.0000-0003-0764-9569
Levine, A. M.0000-0001-8172-0453
Morgan, E. H.0000-0003-1447-6344
Reefe, M.0000-0003-4701-8497
Tronsgaard, R.0000-0003-1001-0707
Wittrock, J.0000-0002-7424-9891
Collins, K. A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Latham, D. W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Ricker, G. R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Vanderspek, R.0000-0001-6763-6562
Winn, J.0000-0002-4265-047X
Bachelet, E.0000-0002-6578-5078
Bowman, M.0000-0002-9716-6175
McCully, C.0000-0001-5807-7893
Harbeck, D.0000-0002-8590-007X
Volgenau, N. H.0000-0002-0329-293X
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2021 April 12; revised 2021 June 18; accepted 2021 July 6; published 2021 September 28. We acknowledge Masahiro Ikoma for supporting the development of MuSCAT3 behind the scenes. We acknowledge Sudhish Chimaladinne, Srihan Kotnana, David Vermilion, Deven Combs, Kevin Collins, and Peter Plavchan for observations and analyses using the GMO telescope. A.F. thanks Sho Shibata and Tadahiro Kimura for useful discussions on possible formation scenarios of the TOI-1749 system. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC). Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission that are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). This article is based on observations made with the MuSCAT2 instrument, developed by ABC, at Telescopio Carlos Sánchez operated on the island of Tenerife by the IAC in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. This paper is based on observations made with the MuSCAT3 instrument, developed by the Astrobiology Center and under financial supports by JSPS KAKENHI (JP18H05439) and JST PRESTO (JPMJPR1775), at Faulkes Telescope North on Maui, HI, operated by the Las Cumbres Observatory. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. The data presented here were obtained in part with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. Based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin 48 inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. Z.T.F. is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. This work is partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos. JP17H04574, JP18H01265, and JP18H05439, Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows grant No. JP20J21872, JST PRESTO grant No. JPMJPR1775, and a University Research Support Grant from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). This work is also partly financed by the Spanish Ministry of Economics and Competitiveness through grants PGC2018-098153-B-C31 and PID2019-109522GB-C53. J.K. gratefully acknowledges the support of the Swedish National Space Agency (DNR 2020-00104). G.M. has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 895525. M.T. is supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant Nos.18H05442, 15H02063, and 22000005. Facilities: TESS - , NOT (ALFOSC) - , Keck:II (NIRC2) - , Sanchez (MuSCAT2) - , FTN (Spectral - , MuSCAT3) - , LCOGT (Sinistro) - , GTC (OSIRIS) - , MAST - . Software: PyAstronomy (Czesla et al. 2019), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013), celerite (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2017), PyTransit (Parviainen 2015), LDTk (Parviainen & Aigrain 2015), TTVFast (Deck et al. 2014), OpenTS (Parviainen et al. 2020), SPOCK (Tamayo et al. 2020).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H04574
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H01265
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20J21872
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PGC2018-098153-B-C31
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PID2019-109522GB-C53
Swedish National Space AgencyDNR 2020-00104
Marie Curie Fellowship895525
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H05442
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)15H02063
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)22000005
Subject Keywords:Transits; Exoplanet detection methods; Transit duration variation method; Super Earths; Mini Neptunes; M dwarf stars
Issue or Number:4
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Transits (1711); Exoplanet detection methods (489); Transit duration variation method (1707); Super Earths (1655); Mini Neptunes (1063); M dwarf stars (982)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211014-212143326
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:A. Fukui et al 2021 AJ 162 167
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111448
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 Oct 2021 22:30
Last Modified:18 Oct 2021 22:30

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