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Inflation and Asymmetric Collapse at Kīlauea Summit During the 2018 Eruption From Seismic and Infrasound Analyses

Lai, Voon Hui and Zhan, Zhongwen and Brissaud, Quentin and Sandanbata, Osamu and Miller, Meghan S. (2021) Inflation and Asymmetric Collapse at Kīlauea Summit During the 2018 Eruption From Seismic and Infrasound Analyses. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 126 (10). Art. No. e2021JB022139. ISSN 2169-9313. doi:10.1029/2021jb022139.

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Characterizing the large M4.7+ seismic events during the 2018 Kīlauea eruption is important to understand the complex subsurface deformation at the Kīlauea summit. The first 12 events (May 17–May 26) are associated with long-duration seismic signals and the remaining 50 events (May 29–August 2) are accompanied by large-scale caldera collapses. Resolving the source location and mechanism is challenging because of the shallow source depth, significant nondouble-couple components, and complex velocity structure. We demonstrate that combining multiple geophysical data from broadband seismometers, accelerometers, and infrasound is essential to resolve different aspects of the seismic source. Seismic moment tensor solutions using near-field summit stations show the early events are inflationary. Infrasound data and particle motion analysis identify the source of inflation as the Halema'uma'u reservoir. For the later collapse events, two-independent moment tensor inversions using local and global stations consistently show that asymmetric slips occur on inward-dipping normal faults along the northwest corner of the caldera. While the source mechanism from May 29 onwards is not fully resolvable seismically using far-field stations, infrasound records, and simulations suggest there may be inflation during the collapse. The summit events are characterized by both inflation and asymmetric slip, which are consistent with geodetic data. Based on the location of the slip and microseismicity, the caldera may have failed in a “see-saw” manner: small continuous slips in the form of microseismicity on the southeast corner of the caldera, compensated by large slips on the northwest during the large collapse events.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Itemseismic and infrasound data -- IRIS
Lai, Voon Hui0000-0002-0738-0187
Zhan, Zhongwen0000-0002-5586-2607
Brissaud, Quentin0000-0001-8189-4699
Sandanbata, Osamu0000-0002-2361-8482
Miller, Meghan S.0000-0001-5494-2296
Additional Information:© 2021. American Geophysical Union. Issue Online: 15 October 2021; Version of Record online: 15 October 2021; Accepted manuscript online: 30 September 2021; Manuscript accepted: 25 September 2021; Manuscript revised: 19 September 2021; Manuscript received: 28 March 2021. The authors thank the editor, associate editor, and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback on this manuscript. The authors are deeply grateful for Luis Rivera for his insights and help on the teleseismic moment tensor inversion, Greg Waite for providing the initial NPT infrasound data, and USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for their dedication in maintaining the geophysical monitoring network throughout the eruption. O. Sandanbata received funding from JSPS-KAKENHI (Grant No. JP20J01689). Data Availability Statement: All seismic and infrasound data used in this study are available through the IRIS webservices (USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), 1956; The moment tensor catalogs are provided with details in the Supporting Information S1.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20J01689
Subject Keywords:Kilauea; moment tensor; volcanic sources; caldera collapse; infrasound
Issue or Number:10
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211015-222203101
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Lai, V. H., Zhan, Z., Brissaud, Q., Sandanbata, O., & Miller, M. S. (2021). Inflation and asymmetric collapse at Kīlauea summit during the 2018 eruption from seismic and infrasound analyses. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 126, e2021JB022139.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111481
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 Oct 2021 14:59
Last Modified:26 Oct 2021 16:19

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