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TESS-Keck Survey. IX. Masses of Three Sub-Neptunes Orbiting HD 191939 and the Discovery of a Warm Jovian plus a Distant Substellar Companion

Lubin, Jack and Van Zandt, Judah and Holcomb, Rae and Weiss, Lauren M. and Petigura, Erik A. and Robertson, Paul and Murphy, Joseph M. Akana and Scarsdale, Nicholas and Batygin, Konstantin and Polanski, Alex S. and Batalha, Natalie M. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Dressing, Courtney and Fulton, Benjamin and Howard, Andrew W. and Huber, Daniel and Isaacson, Howard and Kane, Stephen R. and Roy, Arpita and Beard, Corey and Blunt, Sarah and Chontos, Ashley and Dai, Fei and Dalba, Paul A. and Kaz, Gary and Giacalone, Steven and Hill, Michelle L. and Mayo, Andrew and Močnik, Teo and Kosiarek, Molly R. and Rice, Malena and Rubenzahl, Ryan A. and Latham, David W. and Seager, S. and Winn, Joshua N. (2022) TESS-Keck Survey. IX. Masses of Three Sub-Neptunes Orbiting HD 191939 and the Discovery of a Warm Jovian plus a Distant Substellar Companion. Astronomical Journal, 163 (2). Art. No. 101. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ac3d38.

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Exoplanet systems with multiple transiting planets are natural laboratories for testing planetary astrophysics. One such system is HD 191939 (TOI 1339), a bright (V = 9) and Sun-like (G9V) star, which TESS found to host three transiting planets (b, c, and d). The planets have periods of 9, 29, and 38 days each with similar sizes from 3 to 3.4 R_⊕. To further characterize the system, we measured the radial velocity (RV) of HD 191939 over 415 days with Keck/HIRES and APF/Levy. We find that M_b = 10.4 ± 0.9 M_⊕ and M_c = 7.2 ± 1.4 M_⊕, which are low compared to most known planets of comparable radii. The RVs yield only an upper limit on M_d (<5.8 M_⊕ at 2σ). The RVs further reveal a fourth planet (e) with a minimum mass of 0.34 ± 0.01 M_(Jup) and an orbital period of 101.4 ± 0.4 days. Despite its nontransiting geometry, secular interactions between planet e and the inner transiting planets indicate that planet e is coplanar with the transiting planets (Δi < 10°). We identify a second high-mass planet (f) with 95% confidence intervals on mass between 2 and 11 M_(Jup) and period between 1700 and 7200 days, based on a joint analysis of RVs and astrometry from Gaia and Hipparcos. As a bright star hosting multiple planets with well-measured masses, HD 191939 presents many options for comparative planetary astronomy, including characterization with JWST.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Lubin, Jack0000-0001-8342-7736
Van Zandt, Judah0000-0002-4290-6826
Holcomb, Rae0000-0002-5034-9476
Weiss, Lauren M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Robertson, Paul0000-0003-0149-9678
Murphy, Joseph M. Akana0000-0001-8898-8284
Scarsdale, Nicholas0000-0003-3623-7280
Batygin, Konstantin0000-0002-7094-7908
Polanski, Alex S.0000-0001-7047-8681
Batalha, Natalie M.0000-0002-7030-9519
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Dressing, Courtney0000-0001-8189-0233
Fulton, Benjamin0000-0003-3504-5316
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Huber, Daniel0000-0001-8832-4488
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Roy, Arpita0000-0001-8127-5775
Beard, Corey0000-0001-7708-2364
Blunt, Sarah0000-0002-3199-2888
Chontos, Ashley0000-0003-1125-2564
Dai, Fei0000-0002-8958-0683
Dalba, Paul A.0000-0002-4297-5506
Giacalone, Steven0000-0002-8965-3969
Hill, Michelle L.0000-0002-0139-4756
Mayo, Andrew0000-0002-7216-2135
Močnik, Teo0000-0003-4603-556X
Kosiarek, Molly R.0000-0002-6115-4359
Rice, Malena0000-0002-7670-670X
Rubenzahl, Ryan A.0000-0003-3856-3143
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2021 April 21; revised 2021 November 17; accepted 2021 November 24; published 2022 January 31. We thank the anonymous referee for their insightful and thorough comments. We are grateful to Tim Brandt for his insight and contributions to the methods of Section 5. We thank the time assignment committees of the University of California, the California Institute of Technology, NASA, and the University of Hawai'i for supporting the TESS-Keck Survey with observing time at Keck Observatory and on the Automated Planet Finder. We thank NASA for funding associated with our Key Strategic Mission Support project. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts and dedication of the Keck Observatory staff for support of HIRES and remote observing. We recognize and acknowledge the cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are deeply grateful to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. We thank Ken and Gloria Levy, who supported the construction of the Levy Spectrometer on the Automated Planet Finder. We thank the University of California and Google for supporting Lick Observatory and the UCO staff for their dedicated work scheduling and operating the telescopes of Lick Observatory. This paper is based on data collected by the TESS mission. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by the NASA Explorer Program. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission that are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). E.A.P. acknowledges the support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. L.M.W. is supported by the Beatrice Watson Parrent Fellowship and NASA ADAP grant 80NSSC19K0597. A.C. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program (DGE 1842402). D.H. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NSSC18K1585, 80NSSC19K0379), and the National Science Foundation (AST-1717000). I.J.M.C. acknowledges support from the NSF through grant AST-1824644. P.D. acknowledges support from a National Science Foundation Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1903811. A.B. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE 1745301. R.A.R. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE 1745301. C.D.D. acknowledges the support of the Hellman Family Faculty Fund, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the David & Lucile Packard Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration via the TESS Guest Investigator Program (80NSSC18K1583). J.M.A.M. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE-1842400. J.M.A.M. also acknowledges the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining grant No. 1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation; his participation in the program has benefited this work. M.R.K is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE 1339067. Facilities:Automated Planet Finder (Levy), Keck I (HIRES), TESS. Software: Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), (Foreman-Mackey 2016), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013), isoclassify (Huber et al. 2017), Jupyter (Kluyver et al. 2016), KeckSpec (Rice & Brewer 2020) matplotlib (Hunter 2007), numpy (Van Der Walt et al. 2011), pandas (McKinney 2010), Python Limb Darkening Toolkit (Parviainen & Aigrain 2015) RadVel (Fulton et al. 2018), Smint (Piaulet et al. 2021) SpecMatch-Syn (Petigura et al. 2017) Transit Least Squares (Hippke & Heller 2019) exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2020a) and its dependencies (Agol et al. 2020; Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018; Espinoza 2018; Luger et al. 2019; Salvatier et al. 2016; Theano Development Team 2016).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ken and Gloria LevyUNSPECIFIED
University of CaliforniaUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Beatrice Watson Parrent FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842402
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1903811
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1745301
Hellman Family Faculty FundUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1842400
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Brinson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1339067
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet astronomy; Exoplanet dynamics
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet astronomy (486); Exoplanet dynamics (490)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211018-185245786
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jack Lubin et al 2022 AJ 163 101
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111525
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:15 Nov 2021 21:45
Last Modified:01 Feb 2022 23:06

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