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Atacama Cosmology Telescope measurements of a large sample of candidates from the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey. Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect confirmation of MaDCoWS candidates using ACT

Orlowski-Scherer, John and Di Mascolo, Luca and Bhandarkar, Tanay and Manduca, Alex and Mroczkowski, Tony and Amodeo, Stefania and Battaglia, Nick and Brodwin, Mark and Choi, Steve K. and Devlin, Mark and Dicker, Simon and Dunkley, Jo and Gonzalez, Anthony H. and Han, Dongwon and Hilton, Matt and Huffenberger, Kevin and Hughes, John P. and MacInnis, Amanda and Knowles, Kenda and Koopman, Brian J. and Lowe, Ian and Moodley, Kavilan and Nati, Federico and Niemack, Michael D. and Page, Lyman A. and Partridge, Bruce and Romero, Charles and Salatino, Maria and Schillaci, Alessandro and Sehgal, Neelima and Sifón, Cristóbal and Staggs, Suzanne and Stanford, Spencer A. and Thornton, Robert and Vavagiakis, Eve M. and Wollack, Edward J. and Xu, Zhilei and Zhu, Ningfeng (2021) Atacama Cosmology Telescope measurements of a large sample of candidates from the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey. Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect confirmation of MaDCoWS candidates using ACT. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 653 . Art. No. A135. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141200.

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Context. Galaxy clusters are an important tool for cosmology, and their detection and characterization are key goals for current and future surveys. Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS) located 2839 significant galaxy overdensities at redshifts 0.7 ≲ z ≲ 1.5, which included extensive follow-up imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope to determine cluster richnesses. Concurrently, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) has produced large area millimeter-wave maps in three frequency bands along with a large catalog of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ)-selected clusters as part of its Data Release 5 (DR5). Aims. We aim to verify and characterize MaDCoWS clusters using measurements of, or limits on, their thermal SZ effect signatures. We also use these detections to establish the scaling relation between SZ mass and the MaDCoWS-defined richness. Methods. Using the maps and cluster catalog from DR5, we explore the scaling between SZ mass and cluster richness. We do this by comparing cataloged detections and extracting individual and stacked SZ signals from the MaDCoWS cluster locations. We use complementary radio survey data from the Very Large Array, submillimeter data from Herschel, and ACT 224 GHz data to assess the impact of contaminating sources on the SZ signals from both ACT and MaDCoWS clusters. We use a hierarchical Bayesian model to fit the mass-richness scaling relation, allowing for clusters to be drawn from two populations: one, a Gaussian centered on the mass-richness relation, and the other, a Gaussian centered on zero SZ signal. Results. We find that MaDCoWS clusters have submillimeter contamination that is consistent with a gray-body spectrum, while the ACT clusters are consistent with no submillimeter emission on average. Additionally, the intrinsic radio intensities of ACT clusters are lower than those of MaDCoWS clusters, even when the ACT clusters are restricted to the same redshift range as the MaDCoWS clusters. We find the best-fit ACT SZ mass versus MaDCoWS richness scaling relation has a slope of p₁ = 1.84_(−0.14)^(+0.15), where the slope is defined as M λ ∝₁₅p₁ and λ₁₅ is the richness. We also find that the ACT SZ signals for a significant fraction (∼57%) of the MaDCoWS sample can statistically be described as being drawn from a noise-like distribution, indicating that the candidates are possibly dominated by low-mass and unvirialized systems that are below the mass limit of the ACT sample. Further, we note that a large portion of the optically confirmed ACT clusters located in the same volume of the sky as MaDCoWS are not selected by MaDCoWS, indicating that the MaDCoWS sample is not complete with respect to SZ selection. Finally, we find that the radio loud fraction of MaDCoWS clusters increases with richness, while we find no evidence that the submillimeter emission of the MaDCoWS clusters evolves with richness. Conclusions. We conclude that the original MaDCoWS selection function is not well defined and, as such, reiterate the MaDCoWS collaboration’s recommendation that the sample is suited for probing cluster and galaxy evolution, but not cosmological analyses. We find a best-fit mass-richness relation slope that agrees with the published MaDCoWS preliminary results. Additionally, we find that while the approximate level of infill of the ACT and MaDCoWS cluster SZ signals (1–2%) is subdominant to other sources of uncertainty for current generation experiments, characterizing and removing this bias will be critical for next-generation experiments hoping to constrain cluster masses at the sub-percent level.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Orlowski-Scherer, John0000-0003-1842-8104
Di Mascolo, Luca0000-0003-3586-4485
Bhandarkar, Tanay0000-0002-2971-1776
Mroczkowski, Tony0000-0003-3816-5372
Amodeo, Stefania0000-0002-4200-9965
Battaglia, Nick0000-0001-5846-0411
Brodwin, Mark0000-0002-4208-798X
Choi, Steve K.0000-0002-9113-7058
Devlin, Mark0000-0002-3169-9761
Dicker, Simon0000-0002-1940-4289
Gonzalez, Anthony H.0000-0002-0933-8601
Hilton, Matt0000-0002-8490-8117
Huffenberger, Kevin0000-0001-7109-0099
Hughes, John P.0000-0002-8816-6800
Koopman, Brian J.0000-0003-0744-2808
Moodley, Kavilan0000-0001-6606-7142
Nati, Federico0000-0002-8307-5088
Niemack, Michael D.0000-0001-7125-3580
Page, Lyman A.0000-0002-9828-3525
Partridge, Bruce0000-0001-6541-9265
Salatino, Maria0000-0003-4006-1134
Schillaci, Alessandro0000-0002-0512-1042
Sehgal, Neelima0000-0002-9674-4527
Sifón, Cristóbal0000-0002-8149-1352
Staggs, Suzanne0000-0002-7020-7301
Thornton, Robert0000-0002-3180-674X
Vavagiakis, Eve M.0000-0002-2105-7589
Wollack, Edward J.0000-0002-7567-4451
Xu, Zhilei0000-0001-5112-2567
Additional Information:© ESO 2021. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 28 April 2021; Accepted 21 June 2021; Published online 23 September 2021. We thank the referee for the useful and constructive comments that helped improve this work. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through awards AST-1440226, AST0965625 and AST-0408698 for the ACT project, as well as awards PHY-1214379 and PHY-0855887. Funding was also provided by Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and a Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) award to UBC. ACT operates in the Parque Astronómico Atacama in northern Chile under the auspices of the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica de Chile (CONICYT), now La Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID). Computations were performed on the GPC and Niagara supercomputers at the SciNet HPC Consortium. SciNet is funded by the CFI under the auspices of Compute Canada, the Government of Ontario, the Ontario Research Fund – Research Excellence; and the University of Toronto. The development of multichroic detectors and lenses was supported by NASA grants NNX13AE56G and NNX14AB58G. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. Colleagues at AstroNorte and RadioSky provide logistical support and keep operations in Chile running smoothly. We also thank the Mishrahi Fund and the Wilkinson Fund for their generous support of the project. Zhilei Xu is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Kavilan Moodley acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa. John P. Hughes acknowledges funding for SZ cluster studies from NSF grant number AST-1615657. Dongwon Han, Amanda MacInnis, and Neelima Sehgal acknowledge support from NSF grant number AST-1907657. Cristóbal Sifón acknowledges support from the ANID under FONDECYT grant no. 11191125. Luca Di Mascolo is supported by the ERC-StG ‘ClustersXCosmo’ grant agreement 716762.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)UNSPECIFIED
La Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)UNSPECIFIED
Government of OntarioUNSPECIFIED
Ontario Research Fund-Research ExcellenceUNSPECIFIED
University of TorontoUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)11191125
European Research Council (ERC)716762
Subject Keywords:large-scale structure of Universe – cosmic background radiation – submillimeter: galaxies – radio continuum: galaxies – galaxies: clusters: general – galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211020-143607070
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Official Citation:Atacama Cosmology Telescope measurements of a large sample of candidates from the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey - Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect confirmation of MaDCoWS candidates using ACT. John Orlowski-Scherer, Luca Di Mascolo, Tanay Bhandarkar, Alex Manduca, Tony Mroczkowski, Stefania Amodeo, Nick Battaglia, Mark Brodwin, Steve K. Choi, Mark Devlin, Simon Dicker, Jo Dunkley, Anthony H. Gonzalez, Dongwon Han, Matt Hilton, Kevin Huffenberger, John P. Hughes, Amanda MacInnis, Kenda Knowles, Brian J. Koopman, Ian Lowe, Kavilan Moodley, Federico Nati, Michael D. Niemack, Lyman A. Page, Bruce Partridge, Charles Romero, Maria Salatino, Alessandro Schillaci, Neelima Sehgal, Cristóbal Sifón, Suzanne Staggs, Spencer A. Stanford, Robert Thornton, Eve M. Vavagiakis, Edward J. Wollack, Zhilei Xu and Ningfeng Zhu. A&A, 653 (2021) A135; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111550
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Oct 2021 22:50
Last Modified:21 Oct 2021 16:34

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