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37 new validated planets in overlapping K2 campaigns

de Leon, J. P. and Livingston, J. and Endl, M. and Cochran, W. D. and Hirano, T. and García, R. A. and Mathur, S. and Lam, K. W. F. and Korth, J. and Trani, A. A. and Dai, F. and Díez Alonso, E. and Castro-González, A. and Fridlund, M. and Fukui, A. and Gandolfi, D. and Kabath, P. and Kuzuhara, M. and Luque, R. and Savel, A. B. and Gill, H. and Dressing, C. and Giacalone, S. and Narita, N. and Palle, E. and Van Eylen, V. and Tamura, M. (2021) 37 new validated planets in overlapping K2 campaigns. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 508 (1). pp. 195-218. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab2305.

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We analysed 68 candidate planetary systems first identified during Campaigns 5 and 6 (C5 and C6) of the NASA K2 mission. We set out to validate these systems by using a suite of follow-up observations, including adaptive optics, speckle imaging, and reconnaissance spectroscopy. The overlap between C5 with C16 and C18, and C6 with C17, yields light curves with long baselines that allow us to measure the transit ephemeris very precisely, revisit single transit candidates identified in earlier campaigns, and search for additional transiting planets with longer periods not detectable in previous works. Using VESPA, we compute false positive probabilities of less than 1 per cent for 37 candidates orbiting 29 unique host stars and hence statistically validate them as planets. These planets have a typical size of 2.2 R⊕ and orbital periods between 1.99 and 52.71 d. We highlight interesting systems including a sub-Neptune with the longest period detected by K2, sub-Saturns around F stars, several multiplanetary systems in a variety of architectures. These results show that a wealth of planetary systems still remains in the K2 data, some of which can be validated using minimal follow-up observations and taking advantage of analyses presented in previous catalogues.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemMAST-supported missions ItemVizieR archive server
de Leon, J. P.0000-0002-6424-3410
Livingston, J.0000-0002-4881-3620
Endl, M.0000-0002-7714-6310
Cochran, W. D.0000-0001-9662-3496
Hirano, T.0000-0003-3618-7535
García, R. A.0000-0002-8854-3776
Mathur, S.0000-0002-0129-0316
Lam, K. W. F.0000-0002-9910-6088
Korth, J.0000-0002-0076-6239
Trani, A. A.0000-0001-5371-3432
Dai, F.0000-0002-8958-0683
Díez Alonso, E.0000-0002-5826-9892
Castro-González, A.0000-0001-7439-3618
Fridlund, M.0000-0002-0855-8426
Fukui, A.0000-0002-4909-5763
Gandolfi, D.0000-0001-8627-9628
Kabath, P.0000-0002-1623-5352
Kuzuhara, M.0000-0002-4677-9182
Luque, R.0000-0002-4671-2957
Savel, A. B.0000-0002-2454-768X
Gill, H.0000-0001-6171-7951
Dressing, C.0000-0001-8189-0233
Giacalone, S.0000-0002-8965-3969
Narita, N.0000-0001-8511-2981
Palle, E.0000-0003-0987-1593
Van Eylen, V.0000-0001-5542-8870
Tamura, M.0000-0002-6510-0681
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2021 July 20. Received 2021 July 16; in original form 2020 October 15. Published: 14 August 2021. This work was carried out as part of the KESPRINT consortium. The WIYN/NESSI observations were conducted as part of an approved NOAO observing program (P.I. Livingston, proposal ID 2017A-0377). Data presented herein were obtained at the WIYN Observatory from telescope time allocated to NN-EXPLORE through the scientific partnership of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. NESSI was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and the NASA Ames Research Center. NESSI was built at the Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. The authors are honoured to be permitted to conduct observations on Iolkam Du’ag (Kitt Peak), a mountain within the Tohono O’odham Nation with particular significance to the Tohono O’odham people. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant numbers 18H05442, 15H02063, 17H04574, 18H01265, 18H05439, and 20K14518, and JST PRESTO grant number JPMJPR1775. This work is also supported by a NASA WIYN PI Data Award, administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. MF gratefully acknowledges the support of the Swedish National Space Agency (DNR 65/19, 174/18). SM acknowledges support by the Spanish Ministry with the Ramon y Cajal fellowship number RYC-2015-17697. RAG acknowledges the support of the CNES PLATO grant. JK gratefully acknowledge the support of the Swedish National Space Agency (SNSA; DNR 2020-00104) This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos., processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC; Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. The Digitized Sky Surveys were produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute under U.S. Government grant NAG W-2166. The images of these surveys are based on photographic data obtained using the Oschin Schmidt Telescope on Palomar Mountain and the UK Schmidt Telescope. The plates were processed into the present compressed digital form with the permission of these institutions. KWFL acknowledges the support by DFG grants RA714/14-1 within the DFG Schwerpunkt SPP 1992, Exploring the Diversity of Extrasolar Planets. The simulations were run on the CfCA Calculation Server at NAOJ. AAT acknowledges support from JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 17F17764 and 17H06360. Data Availability: The data underlying this article were accessed from MAST ( with specific links mentioned in the article. The tables presented in this work will also be made available at the CDS (
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H05442
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)15H02063
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H04574
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H01265
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H05439
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)20K14518
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
Swedish National Space AgencyDNR 65/19
Swedish National Space AgencyDNR 174/18
Ramón y Cajal ProgrammeRYC-2015-17697
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space AgencyDNR 2020-00104
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)RA714/14-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SPP 1992
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17F17764
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H06360
Subject Keywords:exoplanets – stars: fundamental parameters – planets and satellites: detection – techniques: photometric – methods: data analysis
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211022-181340637
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:J P de Leon, J Livingston, M Endl, W D Cochran, T Hirano, R A García, S Mathur, K W F Lam, J Korth, A A Trani, F Dai, E Díez Alonso, A Castro-González, M Fridlund, A Fukui, D Gandolfi, P Kabath, M Kuzuhara, R Luque, A B Savel, H Gill, C Dressing, S Giacalone, N Narita, E Palle, V Van Eylen, M Tamura, 37 new validated planets in overlapping K2 campaigns, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 508, Issue 1, November 2021, Pages 195–218,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111608
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 Oct 2021 22:46
Last Modified:26 Oct 2021 19:37

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