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A Framework for Array Shape Reconstruction Through Mutual Coupling

Fikes, Austin and Mizrahi, Oren S. and Hajimiri, Ali (2021) A Framework for Array Shape Reconstruction Through Mutual Coupling. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 69 (10). pp. 4422-4436. ISSN 0018-9480. doi:10.1109/tmtt.2021.3097729.

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Flexible phased arrays potentially enable diverse applications not permitted by rigid systems; however, they introduce ambiguity in antenna element positions. If this position ambiguity can be overcome, flexible arrays can perform the full suite of array functions: beam steering, wavefront engineering, and beam focusing. Furthermore, shape reconstructions of arrays can be used for applications beyond beamforming. We propose a framework to reconstruct the shape of a flexible array that only uses mutual coupling measurements and does not require additional sensors or functionalities in the system. We discuss the approach, a two-step algorithm, which is highly modular and can be implemented in a variety of phased array systems. To demonstrate the accuracy of the approach, we present results from two passive 2.5-GHz phased array setups using dipole and patch antennas, as well as a 10-GHz (active) integrated circuit flexible phased array, and demonstrate the accuracy of the approach in this system. In all cases, the algorithm reconstructs the antenna shape accurately, with average position errors of approximately 6% of the wavelength. This article can serve as the beginning of the broad study of shape reconstruction algorithms and their applications.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Fikes, Austin0000-0003-4889-5782
Mizrahi, Oren S.0000-0003-4271-8822
Hajimiri, Ali0000-0001-6736-8019
Additional Information:© 2021 IEEE. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. For more information, see Manuscript received April 12, 2021; revised June 20, 2021; accepted June 22, 2021. Date of publication July 27, 2021; date of current version October 5, 2021. This work was supported in part by the Caltech Space Solar Power Project and in part by the Caltech Electrical Engineering Fellowship. The authors would like to thank Behrooz Abiri, Florian Bohn, Matan Gal, Mohammad Reza Hashemi, and Mohith Manohara who have helped develop flexible phased array infrastructure in the Caltech Holistic Integrated Circuits Laboratory.
Group:Space Solar Power Project
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Caltech Division of Engineering and Applied ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Space Solar Power ProjectUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Conformal antennas, convex optimization, Euclidean distance matrix (EDM), flexible electronics, integrated circuits, phased array, semidefinite programming, shape calibration, shape reconstruction
Issue or Number:10
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20211104-153445242
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:A. Fikes, O. S. Mizrahi and A. Hajimiri, "A Framework for Array Shape Reconstruction Through Mutual Coupling," in IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 4422-4436, Oct. 2021, doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2021.3097729
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:111751
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Nov 2021 15:51
Last Modified:04 Nov 2021 15:51

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